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MEDITATION AND ENLIGHTENMENT

 Written in 2017
by Tan Tran, PH. D.

This paper is in copyright. No reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of the author.

***

          This is the third essay in super-science-religion, in which we clarify the concept of super-creation and introduce the laws of the universe in super-religion. The constituents of the universe are discovered.  Also we describe different basic methods of meditation. The technical words used may cause ambiguity in meaning to the reader. If so, the reader would be referred to other texts in Buddhist sermons.


LAW OF TRANSFORMATION BETWEEN
ENERGY AND ELECTRICITY

         We have seen the law of transformation between energy and matter

E = mc2

that explains how energy is transformed to matter and conversely.

          Now we find out the relation between energy and electricity. The tool we use is the electron that is assumed to be an elementary particle: a fundamental building block of matter. In physics theories, the electron can not be decomposed into more primary constituents. The electron has the following intrinsic properties (Electron by A. Pais, Encyclopedia of Physics, Second Edition, VCH.)

  1/ The free electron is generally believed to be absolutely stable. A lower bound of the lifetime of the electron was established as 1021 years.

          2/ Mass: m=0.511 003 4 MeV/c2=9.109 534 x 10-28 g.

  3/ Charge: e=4.803 242 x 10-30 esu.

  4/ Spin: h/4π

  5/ Gyromagnetic ratio: 1.001 159 656 7 e/mc

  6/ Electric-dipole moment: Not observed. Its present experimental upper bound is 3 x 10-24e cm.

          Those are the measures in the system CGS. If we use the system MKS, we have mass and charge of the electron:

          Mass: m=9.109 534 x 10-31 Kg

          Charge: e=1.602 177 33 x 10-19 C

          If we take the ratio charge over mass of the electron, we have

e/m = 1.602 177 33  x 10-19 C/9.109 534  x 10-31 Kg

 = 1.758 791 x 1011 C/Kg

       Let's call that ratio e/m the elementary constant r (=1.758 791 x 1011 C/Kg)

              e = mr = m x 1.758 791 1011

At the scale of electron, one kilogram of matter is equivalent to 1.758 791x1011 coulombs.

Since energy E=mc2, we have

                       E = ec2/r

It is the law of transformation between energy and electricity.    


CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE

          So far we have worked in super-science with the data from the scientific researches and discoveries of scientists in mechanics and physics. We have seen many laws of the universe.

          On the stand point of super-science, we know that the universe is the One of Energy-Space-Time that is the greatest phenomenon whose substance is The Supreme Substance of The Supreme Power. The words Supreme Substance and Supreme Energy are synonyms of Supreme Power. In different circumstances we use either of those names for the same meaning.

          By Ignorance is created Space-Time that covers The Supreme Energy and makes it appear as the One of energy-space-time. So the universe of energy-space-time is the transformation of Supreme Energy by Ignorance. The Supreme Energy is beyond the universe, beyond the Mind and the Word of all sentient  beings.

       When using human Mind and Word to describe the Supreme Energy, one can imagine a mystery hidden behind the Ignorance, but can not really understand and see it as is.

          Meditation is The Way to transcend through the ignorance to reach to the Supreme Energy. When one can erase the ignorance, the Supreme Energy can be understood and experienced. It is Enlightenment.

          We are now at the stage of searching the Creation of the universe by the law of Ignorance.

          Using the human language of sciences and philosophy, we conceive that the Beginning of the universe is Ignorance which is beyond human knowledge. At this point we must clarify the concept of Creation. The concept of Creation we conceive here is the change from the Supreme Energy to this universe of energy-space-time. It is what we call the Super-Creation of the Universe from the True Emptiness. We emphasize that the concept of Super-Creation is different from the concept of Normal Creation that is making a new thing from other things which are already made. For example, people normally create (make) a car from the parts already made before, or the creation of a cake from flour, milk and sugar, or the creation of a baby from a man and a woman.

          The Supreme Energy is Beyond the universe, beyond every thing, beyond the Mind and the Word of sentient beings.

          After Energy-space-time appears, energy is transformed into mass and electricity by the two laws

                           E = mc2

                          E = ec2/r

          Masses constitute the Gravitation and electricity constitutes the Karma. Gravitational Field and Karmic Field appear as Forces in the universe.

          Gravitation and Karma have a Unified System of Equations already examined in the two previous papers, Theoretical Concepts of Universality, and Super-science-religion.

 

CONSTITUENTS  OF  THE  UNIVERSE

          In this paragraph, we describe the concepts and laws in Super-Science.

          At the beginning, the energy-space-time appeared first in the PRIMORDIAL FORM OF PARTICLE-NO-PARTICLE, AT THE STATE OF NO-REST-NO-MOTION. THE STATE OF NO-REST-NO-MOTION OF THE PARTICLE-NO-PARTICLE CONSTITUTES THE ABSOLUTE SPACE OF THE UNIVERSE. In the absolute space, there are genes of rest and motion which are the basis of Absolute and Relative. Motions appear due to the forces of gravitation and karma. The resultant of all the motions in the universe manifests the ABSOLUTE TIME.

          So in super-science we have Absolute and Relative Systems of reference and also Absolute and Relative Times as we have seen in the two previous papers.

          By the Principle of duality, the universe is composed of two worlds inseparably connected.

One is the Material World and the other is the Spiritual World. We say in the material world there is positive energy,  positive matter, and material electricity. In the spiritual world there is negative energy,  negative matter, and spiritual electricity. In both worlds, matter and spirit have Forms. We call Body a form in the material world, and Spirit a form in the spiritual world. A spirit can incarnate into a body if there are favorable karmic and gravitational conditions. When those conditions deteriorate and vanish, the spirit leaves the body. It is the Law of Birth and Death. Since after the death, the corpse has no more sensitivity, the spirit is charged of the Karma. The process of life sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action is mainly of the spirit, which is the karma of the body/spirit during life, and of the spirit after death. That explains that the karma continues after the death, and the 5-process sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action continues with the spirit which will incarnate in another body when the karmic conditions of a spirit and a body are appropriate. It is the law of Metempsychosis or the Cycle of Birth and Death: successive lives will continue for ever.

          The incarnation depends on the karma which is the fruit of the 5-process sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action in the past life. The present life is the fruit of the past 5-process. And the activities of the 5-process in the present life changes the karma, which in turn decides the next life. It is the law of cause and effect of life. Cause an Effect of Karma determine the successive lives by the alternation of birth and death.

          The activities in life are either GOOD or BAD. Good activities produce MERIT. Bad activities produce EVIL. Merit and Evil are the two aspects of Karma: GOOD KARMA and BAD KARMA. We have seen that our universe has the structure of 6 REALMS. The good karma and the bad karma of all living beings in this universe create that structure of six realms. And depending on the karma of an individual, that individual will be born in one of the six realms. When living in one realm, the activities in the 5-process of life determine the karma which in turn decides the future realm and the future life of the individual in that future realm. Clearly speaking, if an individual makes good karma in the present life, that individual will be born in a realm of higher merit with a happy life. If an individual makes bad karma in the present life, that individual will be born in a lower realm of less merit and more evil with a miserable life.

          So far we have studied the origin of the universe in super science. On the scientific stand point, we will find next the constituents of the universe after super-creation. Before defining the constituents of the universe, we need to review again the apparition of the primordial particles.


FUNDAMENTAL CONSTITUENTS.

          Now we explore the fundamental constituents of the universe.

          The first particles of energy appear as particles are called the Vietas. A vieta has dual form: material form and spiritual form. It has the smallest dimension called laca. The shortest absolute time for a vieta to move a distance laca is called a satna. Laca is the smallest absolute distance, and satna the shortest absolute time in the universe. The smallest particle of energy vieta transforms to the smallest mass called a trana. Let's denote a vieta by E, and a trana by m, we have in principle

                             E = mc2     

          And assume we have the smallest electricity e which we call electra, then by using the law of transformation between energy and electricity at electron scale, we have

                             E = ec2/r

          At this point, we have scientifically defined

          vieta = smallest particle of energy

          trana = smallest mass 

          electra = smallest electric charge

          laca = smallest distance

          satna = shortest time

          We can say with no ambiguity:

Before the creation of vieta, there is no particles;

Before the creation of trana, there is no mass;

Before the creation of electra, there is no electricity;

Before the creation of laca, there is no space;

Before the creation of satna, there is no time;

          The word Creation here is the Super-Creation conceptualized before, which is the apparition of things from the True Emptiness. The particle-no-particle is the preexistence of the primordial particles cited above. The particle-no-particle has two aspects: the aspect of no-particle which is the no-existence, and the aspects of particle which is the existence. That means, the primordial particle is non-decomposable, because if we decompose it, we reach the state of existence-no-existence.

          The law of transformation between energy and mass

                              E= mc2

is considered as a Fundamental Law in super-science.             

          In the context of scientific researches, we can also take the law of transformation between energy and electricity for a fundamental principle, because it is the best we can do even though the constant r comes from the assumption that the electron is not decomposable into smaller particles. The life of an electron is estimated 1021 years by scientists and is not eternal.

          We also find out the meaning of the constant c (speed of light and electromagnetic waves in vacuum). We define c as the speed of a vieta moving a distance laca in a time satna

                     laca/satna = c

       It is a fundamental principle of super-science.

   So far we have three principles of super-science:

Principle 1: The speed laca/satna is the speed c of electromagnetic waves.

          By that principle, we see that the constant c is no more a secret because c is determined by the two primordial particles laca and satna.

          We need to understand that the concept of existence has a meaning only after the super-creation. Before the super-creation there was no existence.

          The electromagnetic waves and light are transformed from AURORA after the super-creation. Before the super-creation, there was no space-time, hence aurora has not appeared yet. By the super-creation, aurora is transformed to electromagnetic waves and light in the universe. That explains why people can see light but can not see aurora of the Super Power due to ignorance. When erasing ignorance, enlightening beings can experience aurora beyond this universe.

Principle 2: The transformation between energy and matter is determined by the relation between a vieta and a trana

                             E = m c2

    If we write an energy E=kE, k is a real number, then E is transformed to a mass m

                     E = kE = km c2= m c2

          So, m=km. That is an energy E=kE transforms to a mass m=km.

          Energy and mass appear only after the super-creation. Before the super-creation, there was no energy. The Supreme Energy is transformed to our universal energy after the super-creation. People can not see the Supreme Energy because of ignorance. Enlightening people will experience Supreme Energy. The concept of mass does not exist with Supreme Energy.

Principle 3: The transformation between energy and electricity is determined by the relation betweena vieta and and electra

                         E = e c2/r

          An energy E=kE, k being a real number, transforms to an electricity e=ke

                             E = e c2/r

            The electricity of our universe is transformed from the Supreme Energy, hence does not exist before the super-creation.

          By those three principles, we see that the electromagnetic waves including light come from the primordial existences of vieta, laca, and satna. We also see that masses and electricity come from the primordial existences of vieta, trana and electra. The primordial particle vieta plays an essential role in the foundation and the development of the universe.

          We will explore more the mysterious properties of vieta, the primordial particle of energy.

          Energy appears in the form of vieta

          There is a transition state of particle-no-particle from the Emptiness to vieta      

          The state of particle-no-particle is the state energy-no-energy

          There is no scientific method to discover a vieta; only meditation can view vieta

          Vieta is the liaison between super-science and super-religion

 

LAW OF IMPERMANENCE

           The assumption about the electron leads to a query: Is the universe Permanent or Impermanent?    

           The life of the electron as a primordial particle is estimated 1021 years, a billion of billion years longer than a human life, but the electron after 1021 years will change finally! People can never experiment such a long period of time. We can confirm with certainty that every thing in the universe, even the universe itself, is constantly changing. The change of any life consists of four factors: birth-aging-sickness-death. And the change of every thing in the universe consists of four factors: creation-duration-destruction-annihilation. It is the Law of Impermanence. Nothing is permanent, nothing is eternal in the universe. The concept of SOUL as Permanent in some religions is meaningless. Those religions worship a CREATOR, who does not exist by the principle of ignorance and by the super-creation.

          We as humans are living in this universe, and we all know that we were born, we are aging with time, we are sick time to time and can never avoid getting sick, and finally we will die because it is the law of impermanence in the universe. Where does that impermanence come from? Clearly impermanence is from ignorance. From ignorance the universe appeared, and it will disappear. The law of impermanence is a fundamental law of super-science-religion.

          People are afraid of the death. But rich or poor, successful or failed, happy or suffering, the life of each person will be terminated unavoidably. The universe itself will be destroyed and annihilated.

          What is eternal? What life has no death? What universe has no destruction?

          We will find an answer to those questions.

         

EXPLORATION OF LAWS IN SUPER-RELIGION

          We have developed many laws in super-science, which are more or less related to super-religion.

          Before describing Meditation and Enlightenment with details, we make an overview of the laws to have a general view of super-science-religion.

          The Law of Duality asserts that our universe consists of a material world and a spiritual world connected inseparably together.

          The Law of Birth and Death explains the incarnation of a spirit to a body that is the birth of a sentient being, and the separation of the spirit from the body that is the death of the sentient being.

          The Cycle of Birth and Death or Law of Metempsychosis is that after death, the spirit bound by Karma incarnates to a new body to make a new life in one of the Six Realms of the universe. The Six Realms is the structure of this universe, created by the collective karma of all the sentient beings born in this universe. 

          The process of life sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action comprises all spiritual and material activities of every sentient being. All those activities are due to the karma in the past, present and future lives. The past karma effects the present life, and the present karma will effect the next life. That explains more about the law of Cause and Effect in the Cycle of Birth and Death.

          The Universe is Dual. Beyond the Universe is the No-Duality. The law of Ignorance explains the change of the Non-Dual Supreme Power to the Duality of Energy-Space-Time and Energy-Spirit-Heart.  

          The Energy-space-time is the material world in the view of Super-Science.

          The Energy-Spirit-Heart is the spiritual world in the view of Super-Religion.

          The One of Energy-space-Time-Spirit-Heart is the synthesis of Super-science-Religion.

          That metaphysics is an analysis of the Super-Creation of the universe.

          If it is obscure to some readers, we clarify it with more conceptions. Beyond the universe is Emptiness. Super-Creation is the apparition of Existence from Emptiness. By the law of ignorance, the whole universe appears as the one of a material world of energy-space-time and a spiritual world of energy-spirit-heart. The Supreme Power is No-material and No-spiritual, and by ignorance it appears as material and spiritual. The universe is a Great-Phenomenon of which the substance is the transformation of the Supreme Substance. The Supreme-Substance and the Supreme Power are the One of No-Duality. The law of Ignorance asserts that THERE IS NO CREATOR OF THE UNIVERSE. The belief that a GOD creates the universe is only a Superstition. The Universe comes from Ignorance. The origin of the universe is Ignorance which changes a Great Mystery to the apparition of the universe. The Great Mystery is the Supreme-Substance which has NO PHENOMENON, NO SPACE-TIME, NO SPIRIT-HEART. By Ignorance, the Supreme-Substance transforms to this universe with space-time, and to karma with spirit-heart. So before the apparition of the universe with space-time and spirit-heart, there was No gravitation and No karma. What we know as energy, mass, electricity, space, time, gravitation, karma, sensitivity, emotion, mind, word, action appear only after the super-creation by Ignorance.

          Human beings and all sentient beings come from Ignorance, and they live in the envelop of Ignorance. We live in a dream but we don't know the dream.

          We also have seen other laws in the super-science world, which we don't describe again here.

          But there are laws in super-religion we have to explore to understand meditation and enlightenment.

 

LAW OF FIVE AGGREGATES.

          The bodies of sentient beings and all other things in the universe constitute the FORM. The SENSITIVITY of a sentient being help it FEEL its own presence distinct from other things. The own presence is the EGO, which we have assigned as the total of the expression εμq2 (=1) when studying the rule of coefficients.

          The interactions of a body/spirit with the environment create the five sense organs on the body/spirit: the eyes to see, the ears to hear, the nose to smell, the tongue to taste, the skin to feel, and the brain to think. By those five organs, the body/spirit interacts with the outside world. The Interactions of one individual with the environment consists of five cumulative steps: corporeal (Form), senses, perception, mental formation, consciousness. It is the Law of Five Aggregates. Let's take an illustration to understand that process.

          Consider the case of the eyes seeing a thing. We call the eyes the subject, the thing the object, and the seeing consciousness.

          In the process of five aggregates, first the eyes SEE the FORM of the object. From that form comes the SENSE of seeing. From that sense comes the PERCEPTION on the object. That Perception creates next the MENTAL FORMATION on the object. Then the mental formation mixes with all the aggregates of the six subjects (eyes, ears, nose ) stored in the past karma and in the present karma to form the COMPLETE CONSCIOUSNESS OF SIGHT on the object. So the process of Sight Consciousness consists of FIVE STEPS called the FIVE AGGREGATES or FIVE CUMULATIVE STEPS.

          At this point, we should not be confused the Law of Five Aggregates with the Law of Five Activities.

          The Law of Five Life Activities consists of Sensitivity-Emotion-Mind-Word-Action manifesting all the activities of a sentient being.

          The Law of Five Aggregates consists of five factors:

         Form-Sense-Perception-Mental Formation-Consciousness manifesting the five mental steps of interactions of a body/spirit with the environment. So what we observe is the presence of THREE ELEMENTS: SUBJECT CONSCIOUS-NESS OBJECT. The consciousness is the intermediate relation between the subject and the object. Let's call subject, consciousness, object the three elements of the process of interaction of one organ like eyes, ears, nose with the environment. Since we have Six Organs, there are 18 elements with six categories of perception of the six organs. In our life, every moment we live with our 18 elements.

          With the Law of Five Aggregates we can envisage the Five Impurities.

 

THE FIVE IMPURITIES.

          We know that the INSTINCTS OF LIFE are the BIRTH, the NOURISHMENT, the REPRODUCTION, the DEATH. The birth and death are already explained in the Law of Birth and Death. The Nourishment and the Reproduction are the obligations of life. By the evolution of life, the sentient beings multiply themselves by reproduction. And due to the need of living, they struggle for subsistence and fight together for foods and sexuality. Sentient beings live on the death of other beings.

          Primarily the five aggregates WERE GENUINE and PURE. But by fighting and killing one another, the sentient beings become more and more greedy, angry, delirious, which make the five aggregates IMPURE. It is what we call the FIVE IMPURE AGGREGATES, which are the actual impure mental cumulative of the humane population on the earth today. The present aggregates of all sentient beings in the six realms of the universe are impure.

          The impure aggregates form the foundation of the six realms. Good Karma and Bad Karma are the fruits of the impure aggregates. The structure of the six realms is based on the foundation of karma. Before, in super-science, we conceived the structure of the six realms based on different accelerations and forces in the material-like space and in the spiritual-like space. Here, on the stand point of super-religion, we conceive that the apparition of the six realms in the universe is the consequence of the effects of karma. To understand that verity, just look at the formation of the society in the world. The structure of the society is based on religion, culture, economy, finance, laws etc ... all of which come from the collective karma and the individual karma of the population.

          From the impure aggregates, we further explore more laws of super-religion.

 

LAW OF NO-FORM.

          The first aggregate is the cumulative FORM. Every form, material or spiritual, is composed of matter in five states: solid, liquid, gas, energy, space. The composition of the five states is Impermanent because they change constantly and make the form evolute in the process of four factors: creation, duration, destruction, annihilation. For sentient beings, the four factors are: birth, aging, sickness, death. 

It is the LAW OF IMPERMANENCE we have discovered before. By that law we affirm that FORM IS IMPERMANENT. Because form is impermanent, we conclude there is no fixed form, no constant form, and forcibly there is NO-FORM. It is the LAW OF NO-FORM. Every form always changes. Our body and our spirit always change. The LAW OF NO-FORM is a manifestation of the LAW OF IMPERMANENCE. That law helps us explain how we perform meditation to escape the restriction of form to transcend beyond the universe. Meditation is the RIGHT METHOD to erase ignorance and go beyond the universe to attain enlightenment.    

 

LAW OF NO-EGO.

          The second aggregate is the cumulative SENSE. Scientifically, we have seen that SENSITIVITY is from the electric density on the skin (see THEORETICAL CONCEPTS OF UNIVERSALITY.) And we have also shown that the karma of a sentient being is charged by the spirit because after the death the dead corpse does not have anymore sensitivity. The five process of life creates the karma which determines the reincarnation of the spirit to a new body to make a new living being in one of the six realms of the universe. The sensitivity is the cement of attachment of the spirit and the body in the body/spirit. An individual recognizes the body and the spirit as as a whole existence that has sensitivity. That whole existence senses the distinction between the individual and the environment: it is the feeling of EGO. Everybody sees the Ego as the most important existence because the Ego is the form that has the sensitivity, and other corporeal and mental activities. But the feeling changes constantly and hence the Ego also changes constantly. So there is no eternal ego because Ego is composed of different changing cumulative. That is the ego is impermanent. Because the ego is impermanent, we have the LAW OF NO-EGO. Each of us must reveal that we have no unchanged ego; our existence is only a virtual ego which appears here by ignorance. The universe and every thing come from the Supreme Power by ignorance. Before the universe appears, there was no ego, during life there is no eternal ego, and when completely enlightening the ego will disappear in the Supreme Power.  Knowing intelligently the law of no-ego will help us understand meditation and enlightenment.

 

LAW OF NO-SUBSTANCE.

          The third aggregate is the cumulative PERCEPTION. With the perception of the form and the sense we recognize the substance of an object. For example, we see a chair different from a table, a bird different from a human. It is the difference by substance. The perception of substance comes to our mind after the development of the form and the sense. In a general analysis, we can assimilate the third aggregate of perception with the mind in the five steps process of life. The substances are different from one species to another species. For example, a wood table for human is a house and food for termites. The same thing has two different substances for two species. What we recognize as table substance is house and food substance for termites. There is no unique substance of one thing for all species. Clearly, things have NO SUBSTANCE, because the concept of perception is completely relative to different species and individuals.  It is the LAW OF NO-SUBSTANCE. That law will help us learn and practice meditation.       

         

LAW OF METEMPSYCHOSIS.

          The forth aggregate is the cumulative MENTAL FORMATION, which comes after the FORM, the SENSE, and the PERCEPTION. The six organs eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, and brain have all the five aggregates working before and now. The mental formation relates to all of those aggregates and combines with them to make a configuration of new mental formation for creating karmic seeds which will be stored in the subconsciousness. Those karmic seeds will contribute to the modification of karma which in turn determine the future karmic conditions for the next incarnation. In super-religion language, the mental formation will direct the spirit on the route to find an appropriate body and incarnate into it when the karmic conditions of the spirit and the new body are appropriate. We call it the LAW OF METEMPSYCHOSIS. It is what is called BIRTH-DEATH-CYCLE or LAW OF SUCCESSIVE LIVES. In the mental formation, the mental activities create good karma or bad karma. Good karma produces MERIT and Bad karma produces EVIL. The proportion of merits and evils makes a modification of karma. The resulting karma will be judged to the level of one of the six realms. And the next life will be in the corresponding realm of conforming karma: The result of the judgment will be a sentence to the realm of gods, of humans, of attula, of animals, of ghosts, or of hells.

 

LAW OF BIRTH AND DEATH.

          The fifth aggregate is the cumulative CONSCIOUSNESS. After the process of form, sense, perception, the subconsciousness of the mental formation inter-relates to all the five aggregates and all the karmic seeds of the past and of the present to form the consciousness on the observed thing. That consciousness changes very rapidly. A thinking idea appears and quickly disappears for a new idea comes up. Actually, the consciousness determines all of our activities in the five steps process of life sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action. The continual change of successive concepts effects the activities in life. The activities effect the karma which creates the karmic seeds. The karmic seeds decide our life and also our death. It is what we call the LAW OF BIRTH AND DEATH. The consciousness is the power of the spirit and not of the body. The spirit uses its power to guide the activities of the sentient being body/spirit. We have seen the law of birth and death many times in the essays. Here, we explain it again by the aggregate of consciousness because it helps understand more precisely super-religion.

 

COLLECTIVE KARMA AND INDIVIDUAL KARMA.

          We have discussed the five aggregates, the five impure aggregates, and the five fundamental laws of super-religion. In the formation of the five aggregates, each of them effects the vital activities of the five-process of life. The aggregates effect the body, the sensitivity, the emotion, the mind, the word and the action in life. The aggregates and the vital activities are recorded in the karma like the work, the scholar activities and the working experience are recorded in the resume of a person.  The resume of a person is like the history of country in which all the activities of the population are written and recorded. We have two aspects of history: the collective history and the individual history.

          Similarly, karma has two different aspects: collective karma and individual karma.

          Let's take an example to understand. We have seen in the description of the law of no-substance that a wood table has the substance of table for the human species but it has the substance of house and food for the species of termites. In that example, we can say substance of table is the collective substance of the human species, and house and food is the collective substance for the species of termites. For karma, we can say the same: the human species has the collective human karma; the termites have the collective termites' karma. But among the human beings with the same human karma, each individual has a distinct life with a distinct body/spirit, that is, each individual has a distinct individual karma. Similarly, in the species of termites with the collective termites' karma, each termite has a distinct individual karma. All the gods have the same collective god karma, and each god has a distinct god karma. All the animals have the same collective animal karma, and each animal has a distinct individual animal karma. All the ghosts have the same collective ghost karma, and each god has a distinct individual ghost karma. All the persons in hell have the same collective hell karma, and each of them has a distinct individual hell karma.

 

CAUSES OF KARMA.

          The main subject of the vital activities is the body/spirit (form.) The body/spirit produces the feeling of distinction of the ego from the environment. The mental concept of ego is formed by the five aggregates, essentially by the sensitivity of the body/spirit. Then the ego activates the five steps process of life sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action. The aggregates and the five steps of life activities work together to produce karma. In that ensemble of vital activities and aggregates, we see first the form, then sensitivity, motion, mind, word and action. Six those factors create karma in different ways.

          The form plays the essential role in the life of a sentient being. From the form, the sensitivity produces the ego. The ego then has emotion. From emotion comes mind which expresses word then action. We see that action is the last step in the process of life. But each of the six steps produces karma and the last one is the most influential. The three first steps form, sensitivity, emotion that produce ego are in oriental philosophy not essential in creating karmic seeds. The three steps mind, word, action are the main causes of karma. In life activities, what we think, what we say, what we do all contribute to the creation of karma. The good or bad thoughts, the good or bad words, the good or bad actions have consequences that cause the karma. From those things the actions are the most important generator of the karmic relations.

         

A DESCRIPTION OF SUCCESSIVE LIVES.

          For a life, we have seen the factors of vital activities: Form, Sensitivity, Emotion, Mind, Word, Action that create the karma for the next life.

          We see that all of our activities in the present life effect our karma and produces karmic seeds, which determine our next life. The next life will be in one of the six realms in the structure of the universe.

          We remind here the six realms built up on the foundation of Merit and Evil.

          1/ Realm of God or Paradise

          2/ Human Realm

          3/ Attula Realm (oriental concept) or Angel Realm (occidental concept)

          4/ Animal Realm

          5/ Ghost Realm

          6/ Hell Realm

          The realms 1-2-3 belong to the spiritual-like space-time.

          The realms 4-5-6 belong to the material -like space-time.

          In super-religion, we have seen above the concepts and laws:

*        Law of Impermanence

*        Five activities of life: sensitivity, emotion, mind, word, action

*        Three causes of ego: form, sensitivity, emotion

*        Three causes of karma: mind, word, action       

*        Five aggregates of interactions: form, senses, perception, mental formation, consciousness

*        Two instincts of life: nourishment, reproduction

*        Three causes of impurity: greed, anger, delirium

*        Five impure aggregates

*        Law of no-form

*        Law of no-ego

*        Law of no-substance

*        Law of successive lives (metempsychosis)

*        Law of birth and death

          Those laws and concepts will be used to describe Meditation and Enlightenment.  

 

 MEDITATION  ENLIGHTENMENT

          We talked about Meditation many times in the essays. As we know, super-science covers all scientific activities, researches, and discoveries along two paths: the discovery of anti-matter and the decomposition of particles to sub-particles. The two paths concur at a final point: the origin of the universe. In the description of super-science, we use the scientific results.

          But from the origin of the universe, we must go to the super-creation of the universe, which is a subject of super-religion. That subject is Meditation and Enlightenment. To describe Meditation and Enlightenment we must use the concepts and laws of super-religion.

          The universe is the Greatest Form whose substance is, by the effect of Ignorance, the transformation of the Supreme Substance of the Supreme Power that is beyond the universe, beyond the Word and the Mind of sentient beings. The words Supreme Power we use is an anonymity. The True Supreme Power is beyond Word and Mind, we are forced to use human language and call It Supreme Power. Supreme Power is not Supreme Power, but we call it Supreme Power in Meditation and Enlightenment. We have described before how to understand Supreme Power, and we describe it again because it is the main view to really understand Supreme Power. There are 3 levels of understanding Supreme Power.

          1/ Understanding the ordinary meaning of the words as in every day conversation or in a dictionary;

          2/ Understanding the mysterious meaning hidden behind the words Supreme Power;

          3/ Understanding the true meaning and experiencing the Supreme Power.

          Those three steps of practicing to understanding the Supreme Power is the main object of Meditation.

          When we understand the true meaning and experience the Supreme Power, it is Enlightenment.

          The reader may question: Are there people who Enlightened? Yes. There are many and many Enlightening Saints in this world during 2.600 years of human history.

          In the Buddhist sermons, Gautama Buddha has shown many Bodhisattva like Avalokitesvara (Kenzeon in Japanese, Chen-resi in Chinese, Quan-Thế-m in Vietnamese,) Mahasthamaprapta (Thế- Ch in Vietnamese,) Samantabhadra (Fugen in Japanese, Puxian in Chinese, Phổ-Hiền in Vietnamese,) Manjusri (Diệu Đức in Chinese, Văn-Th in Vietnamese.) Million people have seen Bodhisattva appear as saviors. The author of the essay is one of the witnesses and has even seen Jesus Christ in the year 2000. In many countries, thousand people have enlightened. If someone doubts about that, it is because of Ignorance.

          How to erase Ignorance?

          It is the goal of Meditation.

 

THE RIGHT VIEW

          In our today world, different methods of meditation due to different beliefs cause confusion to people who by convocation want to learn the right way of meditation to erase ignorance. Different cults of religion have different beliefs and the believers try to find the right way of understanding the Verity through different books of religion. Most of those books describe only first level of understanding, that is understanding the ordinary meanings of the teachings. As we know the Verity is hidden secretly behind the words. Unfortunately, different books, even different parts in those books are in contradiction with each other. It is the reason why different cults believe in different meanings, then disagree with each other and fight together.

          So we need to present here the right way of meditation to understand the Verity.

 

THE EIGHTFOLD RIGHT PATH.
 

          The Right Way of meditation is composed of eight paths, which form a compact system called the Eightfold Right Path.

          1/ Right View or Right Understanding

          2/ Right Thinking

          3/ Right Speech

          4/ Right Action

          5/ Right Livelihood

          6/ Right Effort

          7/ Right Tranquility-Mindfulness

          8/ Right Concentration

          The Eightfold Path is the Right Method to practice in any stage of meditation.

          In the Eightfold Right Path, the first thing is the right view. If we understand the right view, we will not get lost in meditation. What we have described so far in super-science-religion is the right view of the universe from Supreme Power and Ignorance. We can represent a configuration of the super-creation as follows.

 

SUPREME POWER

|

IGNORANCE

|

ENERGY-SPACE-TIME-SPIRIT-HEART

|

GRAVITATION  ----------------------  KARMA

|

FIVE GENUINE AGGREGATES

|

CAUSES OF EGO AND KARMA

|

GREED, ANGER, DELIRIUM

|

FIVE IMPURE AGGREGATES

|

MERIT AND EVIL

|

BIRTH AND DEATH

|

METEMPSYCHOSIS

 

          That is the simplest configuration we can display. But when analyzing it, we see the complexity of each step. To avoid our loss in the complexity, we will find the simplest method of the analysis to learn meditation.

          We explore now more rules of super-religion.

 

ORDINARY MEDITATION.

          Meditation is normally a concentration on a subject, for example storm thinking on a cultural, or philosophical, or scientific question. Searching to resolve a problem is a concentration. Finding the meaning of an expression in a study is a concentration. Thinking to write an art book or a history book is a concentration. In those works, people concentrate on ordinary matters. That is the ordinary concentration of people. In the next 2 sub-paragraphs, we see more properties of ordinary meditation on precepts.

 

THE FIVE PRECEPTS.

          In everyday life, people always use mind-word-action to perform all activities. Those are the three causes of karma which determine the present life and also the next life. The activities are either good or bad. The good conduits comprise Five Precepts:

          1/ Not to commit killing. In the society, not to commit homicide. Respect and cherish the lives of other human beings. We love our lives, we do not expect to be killed by any other. By the law of cause and effect, who kills another will be paid by revenge or by law. For nourishment, it is not interdicted to eat the meat of animal if one is restrained to either directly killing, indirectly killing, or rejoicing to see the killing.

          2/ Not to steal. We value our possessions, other value theirs. We don't want a loss, don't cause loss to other.

          3/ Not to commit adultery. That rule helps protect the joy and peace in a family. It is suffering to live in a family where one spouse is not faithful to the other. Many lawful tragedies happen due to adultery. That evil karma will be paid with a painful life.

          4/ Not to lie. Due to greed, hatred, or arrogance, one can lie to hurt other physically, financially, or emotionally. A good person should not lie in any circumstances, unless to save an innocent from devils.

          5/ Not to ingest intoxicants. Intoxicants hurt the brain, and deteriorate the body cells. The intoxicant addicts destroy the bodies, the families, the communities.

          The five precepts not only help people live with happiness in the present, but also create merit for the next life. Who is keeping the five precepts will be born next in the human realm. It is a good deed of everyday meditation. For a practical method, people need to keep by heart the five precepts while thinking, speaking, and acting. It is a good conduct for a good person in the society.

 

THE TEN PRECEPTS.

          The Five Precepts are extended to the Ten Precepts wich are also called the Ten Command-ments.

          1/ No Killing

          2/ No Stealing

          3/ No Adultery

          4/ No Intoxicants

          5/ No Lying

          6/ No Arrogance

          7/ No Toxic Words

          8/ No Greed

          9/ No Anger

          10/ No Delirium

          The group 1-2-3-4 is the conduct of action.

          The group 5-6-7 is the conduct of word.

          The group 8-9-10 is the conduct of mind.

          The 10 conducts are the sources of merit.

          Keeping the ten precepts will help avoiding all Bad karma and producing Good Karma in the present life. Thus we have more merits and lesser sins, which will lead us to the God Realm after death. We will be a God with precious virtue. That god will teach other people, and help them learn and practice the ten precepts. It is why we also call them the Ten Commandments. It is the ordinary meditation. All religions worshiping a Creator teach their followers that ordinary meditation as their Highest Purpose.

          But born in the human realm or the god realm is still in the Cycle of birth and death. A human or a god violate the precepts, they may fall down to a lower realm in the next life. The expectation of meditation is higher. That is we to break the metempsychosis and not come back to any realm in the universe.

          How to escape the cycle of birth and death? From now we will find an answer to that great question.

 

THE RIGHT MEDITATION

          When we want to indicate something beyond our knowledge, beyond our universe, we have no choice but to use human language and human mind. Living in this world, to indicate the Verity beyond every thing, beyond mind, word, and action, the only means is to use mind, word, and action. And the Verity is a mystery hidden above the mind, word, and action used to express it. The right meditation is to find to understand the mysterious secret of Verity.

          At this level, almost all people are lost: lost in the books of religion, books of philosophy. Many people understand one way, the other understand other ways. The books are written along the miss understandings. Unfortunately the miss understandings spread in different countries, different communities, different groups, different religious sects, and pass to many successive generations. Dangerously, many people BELIEVE SUPERSTITIOUSLY IN THEIR MISS UNDERSTANDING BASED ON THE BOOKS THEY READ AND FOLLOW.

          How to avoid the miss understanding? How to find the Right Way to understand the Verity?

         

VERITY.

          We express The Verity in the metaphysical sense.

          The Verity we want to search is the Supreme Power beyond the universe, beyond mind and word. Since IT IS BEYOND EVERY THING, IT IS NO-DUAL.

          Supreme Power is a mysterious No-Duality.

          By the action of Ignorance, the No-Duality appears as Duality-No-Duality.

          Then the Duality-No-Duality transforms to the Duality.

          It is like the process of freezing water: water changes to a saturated state of water-ice then transforms to ice. The Duality-No-Duality in this example is the saturated state of water-ice intermediate between water and ice.

          The Duality-No-Duality is the First State of Energy-Space-Time-Spirit-Heart.

          The First State transforms to the Duality of Energy-Space-Time and Energy-Spirit-Heart. It is the dual form of the universe.

          Energy-Space-Time is the content of Super-science.

          Energy-Spirit-Heart is the content of Super-religion.

          Super-science and super-religion are together in Super-science-religion.

          Super-science studies a dual way to discover the Origin of the universe: Discovery of anti-matter and Decomposition of particles into sub-particles.

          Super-religion reveals a dual way to the Supreme Power: Meditation and Enlightenment.

          Super-science were studied before, and now we study more details on super-religion.

          Super-religion is not a religion. The reader will not see the worship, the offering of sacrifice, or the prayer. The reader will see the RIGHT WAY OF MEDITATION TO ATTAIN ENLIGHTENMENT.

          Most of the old and new religions in the world today teach their followers the Good Conduits to Paradise after death. It is what we have seen with the five precepts and the ten precepts. They don't show the Right Way to enlightenment. Their followers go after Superstitious Beliefs without True Understanding.

          Einstein said after many years of research: If there is any religion that could correspond to the needs of modern science, it would be Buddhism.

          The Right Way of Meditation and Enlightenment must be taught by a person who has enlightened. In our universe, GAUTAMA BUDDHA HAS PERFECTLY ENLIGHTENED. HE TAUGHT ALL SENTIENT BEINGS THE RIGHT WAY. HIS TEACHINGS ARE THE TRUE WORDS INDICATING THE RIGHT METHOD OF MEDITATION AND ENLIGHTENMENT. The word Buddha means Enlightening. We will present an essential summary of the Buddha's teachings on meditation. The presentation is in a form different from the classical Buddhist Sermons, which combines super-science and super-religion.

          The method we present is transcending the Duality to reveal the No-duality. That metaphysics seems obscure to some readers. We will clarify it in the following.

          We have seen that the no-dual Supreme Power covered by Ignorance appears as the duality-no-duality, the first state of the universe. The state of duality-no-duality transforms to the duality of the universe.

          THE RIGHT WAY OF MEDITATION IS TO GO BACK FROM THE DUALITY TO THE DUALITY-NO-DUALITY, WHICH IS THE EMPTINESS DOOR OF THE AGGREGATES. PASSING THE EMPTINESS DOOR IS ENTERING THE NO-DUALITY OF THE SUPREME POWER. IT IS REVEALING ENLIGHTENMENT. THEN CONTINUING TO MEDITATE THE EMPTINESS IN TEN PERIODS TO FINALLY ATTAIN THE NIRVANA.

          That Right Way is to clear the Impurities of Karma.

          There are two stages of purification of karma.

1/      The first stage of meditation called Hinayana is to clear the impurities of the aggregates to cut off metempsychosis, the cycle of birth and death. The result is the No-birth-no-death enlightenment of Arhat, which will continue to the second stage.

2/      The second stage called Mahayana is to clear the aggregates, substance, form, and ego, that is to clear karma and erase ignorance, therefore to attain Supreme Power. The result is the True Emptiness enlightenment of Bodhisattva, which is the door to Nirvana.

          That verbal description of the two stages of meditation seems simple and easy! But the real practice is extremely difficult and long. As an example, when reading the prescription of a doctor, it looks simple, but to remedy a sickness is delicate.

 

HINAYANA  BREAKING
THE METEMPSYCHOSIS

          Remember that in this paragraph we are envisaging The Right Way of Meditation to attain Enlightenment. At this level many people get lost in the search of the verity. The miss understandings, the superstitions, and the wrong beliefs are everywhere. This level is already very high and very difficult to learn, understand and practice.

          The Right Way of meditation is the Eightfold Right Path already presented in the above paragraph.

          The Eightfold Path is the Right Method to practice in any stage of meditation.

          The ordinary meditation shown above is explained by the Eightfold Path: To practice the Five Precepts or the Ten Precepts, we simply use the first four paths of the Eightfold: Viewing, Thinking, Speech, Action. We must always keep, in the Right View, the precepts while we are thinking, speaking, and acting. It is the Right method to produce good human karmic seeds for coming back to the human realm or to the god realm in the next life. If we violate the precepts, we commit evils, and we will harvest bad results.

          The good karma and the bad karma are in duality, that means we are still restricted in the cycle of birth and death. Clearing the bad karma to become wise people is still in the duality, and the metempsychosis still ties us in the cycle.

 

RIGHT VIEW OR RIGHT UNDERSTANDING.

          The first Right Path in meditation is the Right View of the Universe and the Supreme Power.

We have seen the configuration of the apparition of the universe from the Supreme Power by the Ignorance. Ignorance makes the universe appear. Therefore there is no Creator who creates the sinful humanity in this illusory universe. It is the Right View we need to understand to keep always the Right Method of living, working, meditating in life. The Supreme Power is the Supreme Substance above every form-existence, which is Perfect Power, Perfect Verity, Perfect Compassion, Perfect Savior. Supreme Power is no-dual. By Ignorance the No-Duality appears as Duality through the intermediate state of Duality-No-Duality which is the Delirious-Awakening state and in which if one awakens then enlightens, if one is delirious then ignorant.

          Remember that the words Supreme Power, Supreme Substance are anonymous above the Existence of everything. They have to be understood in the True Meaning of Enlightenment.

          The reader can understand the five Right Paths of Thinking, Speech, Action, Livelihood, Effort,  in the Right View. The Right Path of Mindfulness-Tranquility will be described next. It is to cut off the cycle of birth and death. 

 

RIGHT PATH OF MINDFULNESS-TRANQUILITY.

          To escape the cycle of birth and death, we must clean the impurities of the aggregates greed, anger delirium which come from the instincts of nourishment and reproduction in life. From those instincts, the genuine aggregates become impure. The three causes of ego form, sensitivity, emotion and the three causes of karma mind, word, action generate the impurities. The process of impurity occurs in ego and in karma. The ego first is a sense of distinction from the environment; and the mind, word and action reflect the greed, anger, delirium to produce impure aggregates of the ego.

          Greed, anger, delirium are the three poisons for mind. Often they are called the three snakes. If we can take them away, our mind is clear.  

         When our mind is still impure, agitated, it affects our speech. Our words will be lying, arrogant, and toxic. With a clear mind, our words are honest, calm, and wise.

          Once our words are virtuous, our actions are no more killing, stealing, adulterous, and intoxicant. Our actions will be helpful, generous, wright, healthful.

         Merit and evil are two sides of duality. Hence when the bad side is completely cleared, the good side automatically disappears: the ego comes to the state of purity above the wright and the wrong.

          When the mind, word, and action are cleared of impurities, the karma is cleared of the duality of evils and merit.

          That state of pure and clear karma is called mindfulness. But mind and heart is interrelated. Heart is like a swinging monkey, and mind is like a sprinting horse. The impurities of the mind are also the impurities of the heart. So while clearing the mind, we also tranquil the heart. The result of the process of purification of the heart is the state of tranquility.

          The process of clearing the impurities of the aggregates is also the process of purifying Heart-Spirit. The result of the purification is the state of mindfulness-tranquility of Spirit-Heart. At that state, the aggregates are purified and come back to the pure genuine aggregates. With pure genuine aggregates, we are in the Middle Way above Good and Bad. We are no more affected by the law of birth and death. The metempsychosis is cut off.

          Above is the generality of the process of purification of the aggregates. If we analyze it, we see that during the long route, we have practiced all the eight paths of the Eightfold to clear completely the impurities.  

          We emphasize here the difference between the two methods of Ten Precepts and the Eightfold Path.

          To practice the Ten Precepts in ordinary meditation, we clear the Bad Karma to produce only Good Karma, which leads to a birth in the God Realm for the next life, but we are still in the duality of Good-Bad karma.

          To practice the Eightfold Path to escape the Cycle Birth-Death, we clear ompletely the Bad Karma and the Good Karma to come to the Middle Way above the duality of Good-Bad. It is the state of Pure Genuine Aggregates. In that state, we break the cycle of birth and death. We are no more in the obligations of birth and death by the karma. The result of this Stage of meditation is the Enlightenment of Arhat. The Meditation of Enlightenment of Arhat is the First State of Right Meditation.

          There are two stages of enlightening: Arhat and Bodhisattva. An Arhat is Free of Birth and Death. After escaping the cycle of birth and death, an Arhat Vows to come back to the World to continue meditation and enlightenment at the next level, which is the level of Bodhisattva. Both Stages of Arhat and Bodhisattva are Right Meditation.

          We just made a description of Right Meditation for Hinayana and Mahayana.

 

THE RIGHT CONCENTRATION HINAYANA AND MAHAYANA

          As we know there are three levels of meditation.

          1/ The ordinary meditation on the Five Precepts or the Ten Precepts helps make more Good Karmic Seeds and avoid Bad Karmic Seeds. Good karma leads to Human Realm or God Realm. But we are still incarcerated in the cycle of birth and death. If we consider life as a river, ordinary meditation on Good is swimming in the current of water while the other sentient beings who don't know even ordinary meditation are immersed in water.

          2/ The Arhat meditation on the Pure Genuine Aggregates helps clear the impurities off the Impure Aggregates: The impurities are Greed, Anger, Delirium. When the impurities are completely cleared, we stand above the duality of Good-Bad karma. We are no more tied by karma in the cycle of birth and death. It is the state of Mindfulness-Tranquility of Arahat or Hinayana. Hinayana meditation is getting out of the water current of the river of life and standing on the bank.

          3/ The Bodhisattva meditation helps reveal the True Emptiness (Abstention of aggregates) with No-Substance, No-Form, No-Ego. Meditating the True Emptiness is revealing the Sublime Power beyond the universe. A Bodhisattva is free above the water current of the river of life and can fly every where to save other sentient beings.

          Now we study the basics of concentration.

 

THREE BASIC METHODS OF CONCENTRATION.

          Meditation has three basic concentrations: Reflection (Samadhi), Contemplation (Samatha), Reflective-Contemplation (Samapatti.)

          Reflection is deep thinking about something by the spirit.

          Contemplation is to focus on something by heart.

          Reflective-Contemplation is a harmonious combination of Reflection and Contemplation by spirit heart together.

          Those basic concentrations are for both levels of Arhat and Bodhisattva. When practicing them the practitioners may attain the Arhat enlightenment or the Bodhisattva enlightenment depending on the virtues accumulated in the many previous lives and in this life.

          The vocabulary in meditation is very complex with different meanings in Occident and Orient, even different significations in Asian countries. The reader needs to pay attention on those words Reflection and Contemplation when comparing with other texts on meditation.

          We need to distinguish the two words: meditation and concentration.

          Meditation is the TOTAL process of Eightfold Path.

          Concentration Path is the last and the most important of the eight paths of meditation.

          For practitioner, the View path, the Mindfulness-Tranquility path, and the Concentration path are the essential ones to keep the Rightness to Awaken.

 

METHOD OF REFLECTION: SAMADHI.

          In the present context, to reflect on something is to deeply examine it in the sense that it is FICTITIOUS then DETACH OUR SPIRIT FROM ANY ATTACHMENTS TO IT. It is to CLEAR our mind from attachments to any thoughts because we know that every form is fictitious.

          The Buddha said:

          Anything that has a form is fictitious.

         You should reflect that form is impermanent. Sensitivity, emotion, mental formation, consciousness are impermanent. All existences in the universe are impermanent. You should reflect the impermanence. You should not attach to anything.

          In the sutra Perfect Enlightenment (Kinh Vien Giac, in Vietnamese,) the Buddha teaches:

          - A Bodhisattva who reflects the fiction, the transubstantiation of all perfect virtues, keeps tranquility on Dharani (Miracle Words) is practicing Samadhi concentration.

          The method of reflection is based on impermanence, fiction, illusion, transubstantiation, detachment to attain Mindfulness of Arhat or No-substance enlightenment of Bodhisattva.

          Basically to practice Samadhi reflection, an Arhat reflects on a form  - for example, the body, the sensitivity, the emotion, the breath - by thinking it is fictitious, impermanent, then clear it from the mind. After a long period of reflection, the mind becomes clear of delusions. Depending on our virtue, suddenly the practitioner reaches the state of mindfulness. The happening of mindfulness is like the taste of water which is warm or cold only when one drinks that water. A Bodhisattva metamorphoses perfect virtues, keep tranquility on mantras to bless other sentient beings.

 

METHOD OF CONTEMPLATION: SAMATHA.

          To contemplate something, we focus our heart on it; when a sentiment or an emotion like love or hatred appears we perceive that it is false then drop it from our heart. The method of contemplation is to focus on one fixed spiritual thing for example, compassion to erase all emotions and delusions which may come around.

          The method of contemplation is based on falsity, illusion, impermanence, compassion, by dropping delusions.

 

METHOD OF REFLECTIVE-CONTEMPLATION: SAMAPATTI.

          To practice reflective-concentration, we reflect on the fiction of form to clear our minds, and focus on the falsity of emotions to drop suffering from our heart. When clearing our minds and dropping our suffering, one reveals the TRUTH. An Arahat can attain the state of mindfulness-tranquility. A Bodhisattva can attain the state of No-substance and No-form. No-form is True-form.

          We can describe the reflective-concentration as a mutual effect between the mind and the heart . When we can make the spirit clear, the heart is tranquil. When the heart is tranquiler, the spirit is clearer. When the spirit is more clear, the heart is more tranquil. The more clear is the spirit, then the more tranquil is the heart. And so on. The mutual influence of one on the other helps the process continue over and over again until reaching the state of mindfulness-tranquility of spirit-heart. So performing the reflective-contemplation leads to enlightenment.

          To simplify the language, let's call Met (1) the method of reflection, Met (2) the method of contemplation, Met (3) the Method of reflective-contemplation. Then we can combine the 3 Met (.) together to obtain 25 different ways to perform, all of which can help the practitioner reach to enlightenment. Depending on the virtues of that individual the enlightenment is Arahat or Bodhisattva. For illustration we can cite some combinations of the three Med (.).

          Practice only Met (1)

          Practice only Met (2)

          Practice only Met (3)

          Practice Met (1) as the principal Met and Met (2) as an auxiliary

          Practice Met (2) -------------------------------Met (3) -----------------

          Practice Med (3) first, Med (1) next, then Med (2)

          Etc

          In the sutra Perfect Enlightenment, the Buddha gives teachings on each combination. We take an illustration.

          For the combination Med (3) Med (2) Med (1), the Buddha taught

          If a Bodhisattva, practicing Extinction Force, uses No-action to create Tranquil Substantiation for the Sublime Mindfulness, that Bodhisattva first practices Met (3), next Met (2), then Met (1).

          The teaching is delicate and extremely difficult to understand to all of us. The difficulty comes from different translations, from Sanskrit to Chinese, then from Chinese to Vietnamese, and now from Vietnamese to English. Nothing can guarantee correctness of understanding the mysterious meaning in the translations. The technical words implies more difficulties. Only enlightening Bodhisattva can really understand the teaching of the Buddha. If a reader wishes to read more, he/she needs to see the original sutras.

 

CASES OF REFLECTION.

          The method of Counting Breath is today a fundamental method of reflection realized by almost all people who want to practice meditation. It consists of 3 stages of reflecting: Counting Breath, Watching Breath, Realizing Mind.

          Count your breath continuously from 1 to 10 and repeat it. Count like that until you do not miss any count, then start the next stage.

          Watch and follow your breath in and out without counting. If any emotion arises recognize it, reflect it as illusory, then drop it right away. Return to your breathing. Do not let any thought attract or bother you. Watch your breath until it becomes calm and clear. Go to the next stage.

          From now you can stop following your breath, reflect slightly your nose so that you are aware of your breathing. When a thought pops out, you realize it is illusion, and do not follow it. Then it will gradually disappear until no more thoughts arise.

          Peacefully breathe in and out a few minutes, your body relaxed, your mind clear. If any delusion arises, recognize it, do no follow it; it disappears calmly. When delusion stops, the mind is pacified. If any delusion arises again, just forget it, and it vanishes. Keep on doing like that until delusions become lighter, and finally comes to an end. When you are aware of your breath, you can discipline your mind so that no more delusions arise. When your consciousness comes to a calm standstill, there remains only calmness and awareness. It is the starting of Mindfulness.

 

OUTER-MEDITATION

          Another case of reflection is the Reflection on Four Arenas.

          1/ Reflect that the body is impure,

          2/ Reflect that the sense is suffering

          3/ Reflect that the heart is impermanent

          4/ Reflect that every thing is no-self.

          The practitioner needs to reflect those four dharmas deeply and continuously until the mind is clear and calm. No more delusions arise. During the practice, the practitioner will realize four steps of ordinary meditation

          Step 1. Breaking with all desires to be joyful

          Step 2. Calm mind to have happiness

          Step 3. Transform ordinary happiness to sublime happiness

          Step 4. Leave all perceptions to be clear and calm.

          Those steps help the practitioner reach and live in the highest god realm.

          Those 4 steps are called Outer-meditation which means it is not yet IN the right meditation way to enlightenment. Outer-meditation is still in the cycle of birth and death. At the step 4, the practitioner  is at the highest limit of god realm.

          In this highest god realm, the practitioner can choose one of the two ways:

          Way 1. Leave the highest god realm to escape the cycle of birth and death, reaching the Arhat enlightenment.

          Way 2. Enter the God Empty Realm where the gods have extreme power and live an infinite number of lives beyond all the other sentient beings. The God Empty Realm is at the frontier of the universe but still in the cycle of birth and death. If the gods happen to get delusions, they would fall back in the cycle of birth and death like other sentient beings

 

A CASE OF CONTEMPLATION.

          A very popular case of contemplation in many Asian countries is to Pray Amitabha Buddha (A-Mi-Đ Phật.) This method is to focus on the praying Amitabha Buddha calmly, discarding all delusions until the heart is tranquil. The prayer may attain one of the three levels of enlightenment.

          1/ If the prayer can keep the heart clear and light with no delusions and constantly wishes to come to the Universe of Extreme Happiness of Amitabha Buddha, then before death, the prayer will be welcomed by the Buddha and two Bodhisattva with brilliant aurora to the Universe of Extreme Happiness.

          2/ If the virtue is greater, the prayer will attain the level of Arhat and welcomed by the Amitabha Buddha to the Extreme Happiness Universe. There the prayer will continue the perfection in realizing Bodhisattva enlightenment. After some period of time, the prayer will take a vow to willingly come to other universes to teach and bless suffering sentient beings.

          3/ If the virtue is infinite, the prayer will attain Bodhisattva Arena in this life and miraculously metamorphose things to help and save needy people.

          In this method of prayer Amitabha Buddha , the result depends on the Right Effort and the great virtue accumulated in many previous lives and in the present life.

          There are many other methods of contemplation such as contemplation on the Compassion, contemplation on the Wisdom .the reader can find them in the Buddhist Sermons.

         

A CASE OF REFLECTIVE-CONTEMPLATION.

          In meditation, an important method for Bodhisattva is Leaving Off. In practice when sitting meditation, people recognize many thoughts and many emotions arise, which make people turn like a wheel. Traditional words say, heart is like a swinging monkey, mind is like a sprinting horse. To clear the mind and to calm down the heart, the practitioner need to learn how to leave off all the delusions.

          In the first period, the rogue thoughts come up making us roll around with the past, the present and the future. We are anxious, afraid. So just concentrate our mind to clear those thoughts gradually one by one. When one thought is cleared, another comes up; just calmly clear it. When starting it is difficult, don't give up, just calmly clear the thoughts. Then the thoughts become lighter, continue to clear them.

          When we feel that our mind is clear, the bad emotions like hate, anger, greed from the past come  up bothering us. This time calm down our heart. It is also very difficult, but don't give up, just forget all suffering emotions. Forget them one by one patiently. Forget and leave them off until our heart becomes calm.

          When the heart is calm, our thoughts arise again, just leave them off one by one, but it is easier than before. The mind is clearer.

          When the mind is clearer, other bothering emotions come up again. Don't worry, just forget them with ease. The heart becomes calmer.

          Then more thoughts arise, just leave them off again. The mind has more clarity.

          More emotions from the past and the present come up again. Leave them off more easily. The heart has more calmness.

          The thoughts become scattered and the emotions become softer like a very light breeze. Continue to leave off all of them. At some moment, the practitioner feel the mind clear like an emptiness and the heart happy like never before. An emptiness with no fair. A happiness with no desire.

          In that stage, many images appear before the practitioner. Maybe a flower, a cloud in the sky, a person, a god Don't be afraid, don't be bothered, just leave them off again and again until we know that we are at the start of awakening.

          There are thousand and one cases of awakening, which the reader can find in the Buddhist sermons. The Buddha Gautama taught different methods to different disciples according to their karma and virtue they have produced until the moment they worshiped the Buddha 2600 years ago.

          In the sutra Sutramgama, 25 Arahat and Bodhisattva recite their experiences of how they have attained enlightenment. Specially the noble words of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara show a sacred way to enlightenment.

          We end this paper here and refer the reader to the next paper on The Way of Enlightening.

 

 

 

  Trần Cao Tần, Ph.D.
Written in 2017

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 
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