Nguyễn Văn Thành
 

 

  Nền Giáo Dục và SPhát Triển Kinh Tế
của
Các Quốc Gia
 

 Phần 1 

Phần 2

Phần 3

 

                             
                                         
                                       
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

www.ninh-hoa.com

 



Nền Giáo Dục và Sự Phát Triển Kinh Tế
của Các Quốc G
ia

Nguyễn Văn Thành 

  

 

Phần 3:
 

 

Ta thấy lương trung b́nh là 723 USD một năm tương đương với 723/12= 60.25 USD/tháng (hay tương đương với 60 x 16101 = 966060 đồng VN/tháng).

 

Hiện nay, theo bảng lương chính thức của nhà nước th́ lương tối thiểu của một viên chức Việt Nam làm cho chính phủ là 500 ngàn đồng VN (tương đương với khoảng 31 USD) một tháng. Lương cao nhất nước là lương của Chủ Tịch nước hoặc Tổng Bí Thư Đảng Cộng Sản khoảng 5 triệu đồng VN (tương đương với 310 USD) một tháng.

Một sinh viên Đại Học 4 năm tốt nghiệp Cử Nhân hay Kỹ Sư làm cho nhà nước chỉ lănh lương khoảng 1 triệu/ tháng, một Bác Sĩ trung b́nh lănh lương khoảng 2 triệu, một Đại Tá Quân Đội Nhân Dân lănh lương khoảng 2 triệu/tháng.

 

Tuy nhiên ở nhà quê miền Bắc, b́nh quân mỗi người chỉ được 1 sào rưỡi ruộng, thu hoạch không đủ ăn và lợi tức tương đương khoảng 10 USD hoặc 150 ngàn đồng một tháng. Có nhiều cô ở nhà quê phải lên Hà Nội tới hồ Tây hoặc Trúc Bạch hoặc hồ Thuyền Quang để ṃ cua bắt ốc đem bán kiếm kế sinh nhai nhưng họ không lên bắt ốc tại hồ Hoàn Kiếm v́ hồ Hoàn Kiếm nước xanh nên có mùi đồng không ai ăn được.

 

Những người may mắn hơn có bằng Kỹ Sư hoặc bằng Điện Toán (Tin Học) hoặc Quản Trị Kinh Doanh làm cho các công ty ngoại quốc th́ lương cao hơn và lương của các nhà Kỹ Thuật này bù đắp lương của các công nhân ở vùng quê hoặc vùng cao (đồng bào Thượng). V́ thế, ai cũng muốn đi làm cho công ty ngoại quốc, và cả nước đi học tập tiếng Anh kể cả các học sinh Tiểu Học.  Nhiều phụ huynh con nhà giàu gửi con tới các trường quốc tế rất đắt tiền mong cho con sau này có thể vào các trường ĐẠI HỌC danh tiếng.

 

Website sau đây liệt kê lương tối thiểu trong từng quốc gia, trong đó lương tối thiểu của công nhân Việt Nam khoảng 870000 đồng/tháng (48 US đô-la).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_minimum_wage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from List of countries by minimum wage)

The list below gives the official minimum wage rates in some countries. Some countries are more effective than others at enforcing these regulations, so that the effective minimum wage may be lower than the official one.

Country  

Minimum wage  

% of per capita
GDP (PPP)   

Annual wage
(Int. dollars)  

Afghanistan

5,000 Afghani per month, including a stipend for lunch and transportation expenses

364

5,432

Albania

14,000 Albanian lekë per month, nationally

60

3,413

Algeria

10,000 Algerian dinars per month

49

3,799

Andorra

6.5 per hour and €1,080 per month

N/C

N/C

Angola

5,200 kwanza per month

29

973

Antigua and Barbuda

EC$6.00 an hour for all categories of labor[1]

40

5,596

Argentina

800 Argentine pesos a month

58

9,266

Armenia

20,000 Armenian dram per month

31

1,511

Australia

511.86 Australian dollars per week; most workers receive higher wages through enterprise agreements or individual contracts; trainees and apprentices, who combine employment with accredited training have minimum wage rates which vary between AUD 173.00 and AUD 453.00 per week depending on the level of schooling completed

56

18,382

Austria

none by law; instead, nationwide collective bargaining agreements set minimum wages by job classification for each industry; the accepted unofficial annual minimum wage is 12,000 to €14,000

39-46

14,168-16,529

Azerbaijan

29 Azerbaijani manat per month

17

1,045

Bahamas

B$4.00 per hour for the private sector; B$4.45 per hour for government employees[1]

45/50

9,173/10,205

Bahrain

none

Bangladesh

none

Barbados

BDS$5 per hour for household domestics and shop assistants[1]

44

8,208

Belarus

150,000 Belarusian rubles a month

22

1,987

Belgium

1,259 a month for workers over 21 years of age, coupled with extensive social benefits; 18-year-olds must be paid at least 82% of the minimum, 19-year-olds 88%, and 20-year-olds 94% of the minimum.[citation needed]

52

17,879

Belize

BZ$2.00 an hour for those in agriculture, agro-industry, or the economic processing zones and for "bona fide students;" BZ$2.25 for manual and domestic workers[2]

59/66

4,584/5,157

Benin

30,000 CFA francs per month; the government administratively set minimum wage scales for a number of occupations

112

1,578

Bhutan

112.70 Bhutanese ngultrum per day plus various allowances paid in cash or kind

53

2,360

Bolivia

436 Bolivian bolivianos per month

59

1,724

Bosnia and Herzegovina

100 convertible marke per month in Republika Srpska; 308 convertible maraka per month in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

30/93

2,581/7,948

Botswana

3.35 Botswana pula an hour for most full-time labor in the private sector[1]

19

3,032

Brazil

350 reais per month

34

3,130

Brunei

none

Bulgaria

150 Bulgarian leva per month

29

2,885

Burkina Faso

28,811 CFA francs a month in the formal sector; does not apply to subsistence agriculture or other informal occupations

149

2,082

Burundi

160 Burundian francs per day for unskilled workers; in practice, most employers paid their unskilled laborers a minimum of 1,500 Burundian francs per day

2

11

Cambodia

210,000 riels per month for the garment and footwear industries

124

3,929

Cameroon

23,514 CFA francs per month; applicable in all sectors

55

1,205

Canada

set by each province and territory; minimum hourly wages vary from CAD$7.00 to CAD$8.00 in the provinces and up to CAD$8.50 in Nunavut; Ontario and Nova Scotia have minimum wage rates for youths lower than its minimum for adult workers; Ontario also has a specific minimum wage for liquor servers set at CAD$6.95; British Columbia has a lower rate (that is, CAD$6.00) for the first 500 hours in the workforce regardless of age; employers under federal jurisdiction are bound by their host province's general minimum wage (i.e. the lower minimums for youths, etc. in some provinces do not apply at the federal level); many more specific adjustments apply by province or territory[3][1]

29-41

10,196-14,444

Cape Verde

none in the private sector; 12,000 Cape Verdean escudos per month for an entry‑level worker as set by large urban private employers by linking their minimum wages to those paid to civil servants

70

5,096

Central African Republic

8,500 CFA francs a month for agricultural workers; 26,000 CFA francs a month for office workers.

56/171

670/2,048

Chad

28,000 CFA francs per month

93

1,638

Chile

135,000 Chilean pesos per month for those aged 18–65; 101,491 pesos for those younger than 18 and for those older than 65; and 87,697 pesos for honorary payments[4]; 75% of the 18–65 minimum wage for domestic servants

35

4,529

People's Republic of China

none

Republic of China

NT$15,840 a month

38

11,549

Colombia

433,700 Colombian pesos a month; established by the government every January, serving as a benchmark for wage bargaining

78

6,287

Comoros

none

Democratic Republic of the Congo

US$1 per day

N/C

N/C

Republic of the Congo

54,000 CFA francs per month in the formal sector

59

856

Costa Rica

ranging from 81,789 Costa Rican colones a month for domestic employees to 635,850 colones for university graduates, for the private sector

39-302

4,505-35,019

Côte d'Ivoire

it varies by occupation, with the lowest set to 36,607 CFA franc per month for the industrial sector; a slightly higher minimum wage rate applied for construction workers

91

1,549

Croatia

2,100 Croatian kuna (gross) per month; net is between 1,400-1,500 HRK depending upon exemptions

46

6,602

Cuba

it varies by occupation; on average, 225 Cuban pesos a month; supplemented by the government with free education, subsidized medical care (daily pay is reduced by 40 percent after the third day of being admitted to a hospital), housing, and some subsidized food

N/C

N/C

Cyprus

362 Cypriot pounds per month for shop assistants, practical nurses, clerks, hairdressers, and nursery assistants; it rose to 385 CYP after six months' employment

41

11,837

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

860 Turkish new lira per month

N/C

N/C

Czech Republic

7,955 Czech korun a month

31

7,168

Denmark

none

Djibouti

none

Dominica

set by law for various categories of workers (last revised in 1989); as low as EC$1.00 per hour for some categories of workers (e.g., household employees) if meals are included; for most workers ranges from EC$2.00 per hour for tourist industry workers to EC$3.00 per hour for occupations such as shop clerk; labor laws provide that the labor commissioner may authorize the employment of a person with disabilities at a wage lower than the minimum rate in order to enable that person to be employed gainfully[1]

19-56

1,268-3,803

Dominican Republic

4,450 Dominican pesos a month in the FTZs and 6,400 pesos outside the FTZs; 2,600 pesos per month for the public sector; 130 pesos a day for farm workers who are covered by minimum wage regulations, based on a 10-hour day

26-64

2,305-5,675

East Timor

not stipulated in law; in practice, US$85 per month

295

5,100

Ecuador

as of December 2005 the minimum wage plus mandated bonuses provided a gross monthly compensation of approximately US$186, or US$1 per hour, in the case of contract workers

76

3,629

Egypt

N/A; determined by the National Council of Wages for government and public sector employees; it differs among sectors

El Salvador

US$174.24 a month for service employees; US$170.28 for industrial laborers; US$157.25 for maquila workers; US$81.51 for agriculture industry workers, with US$89.10 for seasonal coffee harvesters, $75.57 for sugarcane workers, and $67.98 for cotton pickers

32-81

1,747-4,477

Equatorial Guinea

N/A; set by the government for all sectors of the formal economy

Eritrea

360 Eritrean nakfa per month in the civil service sector

116

1,161

Estonia

as of January 1, 2007, 3,600 Estonian krooni per month at a full time job, 21,50 EEK per hour;[5] approximately 94 percent of the workforce earns above the minimum wage[citation needed]

22.05[6]

3,620[7]

Ethiopia

none; some government institutions and public enterprises set their own minimum wages: public sector employees, the largest group of wage earners, earned a monthly minimum wage of 200 birr; employees in the banking and insurance sector had a minimum monthly wage of 230 birr

159

1,656

Fiji

none; set for certain sectors

Finland

not in law; however, the law requires all employers, including nonunionized ones, to meet the minimum wages agreed to in collective bargaining agreements in each sector of the workforce; almost all workers are covered under such arrangements

France

8.27 per hour[8]

54

16,668

Gabon

80,000 CFA francs per month; government workers received an additional monthly allowance of 20,000 CFA francs per child; government workers also received transportation, housing, and family benefits; the law does not mandate housing or family benefits for private sector workers

29

2,120

The Gambia

19.55 dalasi per day for unskilled labor; in practice 50 dalasi

57

1,208

Georgia

115 Georgian lari a month for public employees; 20 lari a month for private sector sector workers; 38 lari a month for pensioners

8-44

275-1,581

Germany

none by law (but in discussion); collective bargaining agreements set minimum wages by job classification for each industry and region; however, these agreements apply only to employers who are full members of an employers' association (the vast majority of German employers are members)[citation needed]

Ghana

16,000 Ghanaian cedis a day

77

2,121

Greece

29 daily and €649 monthly

36

9,361

Grenada

set for various categories of workers; for example, agricultural workers were classified into male and female workers; rates for men were EC$5.00 per hour, and for women EC$4.75 per hour; however, if a female worker performed the same task as a man, her rate of pay was the same; the minimum wage for domestic workers was set at EC$400 monthly[1]

75/79

6,904/7,268

Guatemala

52.91 Guatemalan quetzales per day for agricultural work and 54.15 quetzales for nonagricultural work

73-75

3,169-3,243

Guinea

the labor code allows the government to set a minimum hourly wage; however, the government has not exercised this provision nor does it promote a standard wage

Guinea-Bissau

19,030 CFA francs per month plus a bag of rice

238

1,845

Guyana

G$22,480 per month in the public sector; G$3,300 per week for certain categories of private sector workers; affected occupations include retail cashiers and clerks, printers, drivers, and conductors

74/116

3,581/5,630

Haiti

70 Haitian gourdes a day

82

1,497

Honduras

broken down by sector and size of business: small (1-15 workers) and large (16 or more workers); the scale ranges from 68 Honduran lempiras a day for workers in small agriculture to 107 lempiras a day for workers in financial and insurance companies and workers in export-oriented businesses, including maquiladoras and commercial agriculture, such as tobacco, coffee, bananas, and seafood production; workers in areas such as construction, services, mining, transportation, communication, etc., had minimum wages between these two rates

77-120

2,396-3,771

Hong Kong

applies only to foreign laborers

Hungary

65,000 Hungarian forint per month

33

6,504

Iceland

none; minimum wages are negotiated in various collectively bargained agreements and applied automatically to all employees in those occupations, regardless of union membership; while the agreements can be either industry- or sector-wide, and in some cases firm-specific, the minimum wage levels are occupation-specific

India

varies according to the state and to the sector of industry; state governments set a separate minimum wage for agricultural workers; some industries, such as the apparel and footwear industries, did not have a prescribed minimum wage in any of the states in which they operated

Indonesia

established by provincial and district authorities, which vary by province, district, and sector; as high as 820,000 rupiah per month in Aceh; as low as 390,000 rupiah per month in one area

32-67

1,369-2,878

Iran

N/A; the law stipulates that the minimum wage should meet the living expenses of a family and should take inflation into account

Iraq

N/A

Ireland

7.65 per hour[9]

38

16,664

Israel

close to 50% of the average wage; as of April 2007 the minimum wage was 3,710.18 New Israel Shekels per month; 148.40 New Israel Shekels a day for those employed on the basis of a six-day work week; 171.21 New Israel Shekels for those employed on the basis of a five-day work week; the minimum hourly wage is 1/186 of the monthly minimum, or 19.95 New Israel Shekels [2]

50

15,195

Italy

none by law; instead set through collective bargaining agreements on a sector-by-sector basis

Jamaica

J$2,800 per week and J$4,140 per week for private security guards

57/84

2,544/3,761

Japan

ranges from 610 Japanese yen to 719 yen per hour; set on a prefectural and industry basis[1]

32-38

10,599-12,493

Jersey

5.24 Jersey pounds per hour for all workers, however trainees rate is JEP 3.94 per hour

N/C

N/C

Jordan

95 Jordanian dinars per month; to be raised to 110 dinars on July, 2007

64

3,563

Kazakhstan

9,200 Kazakhstani tenge a month

17

1,619

Kenya

the lowest minimum wage in large urban areas was 5,346 shillings per month

133

1,785

Kiribati

none; in practice, between A$1.60 to A$1.70 per hour[10]

313-332

7,834-8,323

North Korea

N/A

South Korea

3,100 South Korean won per hour and 24,800 won per day as of December 2006; reviewed annually[1]

37

8,939

Kuwait

200 Kuwaiti dinars per month for public sector citizen employees and 90 dinars for public sector non-citizen employees; no legal minimum wage in the private sector

12/27

2,427/5,393

Kyrgyzstan

100 Kyrgyzstani som per month

6

121

Laos

29,000 Lao kip a day

134

3,097

Latvia

90 Latvian latu a month

23

3,553

Lebanon

300,000 Lebanese lira per month

40

2,170

Lesotho

it varies by sector; 643 maloti for a beginning machinist in the textile industry

178

3,895

Liberia

15 LD per hour not exceeding 8 hours per day, excluding benefits, for unskilled laborers; 15 LD per hour for agricultural workers, excluding benefits; none for skilled labor[11]

354

3,693

Libya

85 dinars per month

9

1,143

Liechtenstein

none

Lithuania

600 Lithuanian litas per month

31

4,901

Luxembourg

varies according to the worker's age and number of dependents; for a single worker over the age of 18 is 1,503 per month for unskilled workers, and €1,804 per month for skilled workers

26/31

21,070/25,290

Macedonia

none

Madagascar

56,713 Malagasy ariary per month for nonagricultural workers; 57,520 ariary per month for agricultural workers

108

1,070

Malawi

MK 97 per day for urban workers; MK 74 per day in all other areas

84/110

594/779

Malaysia

350 Malaysian ringgit per month for plantation workers; raised to 700 ringgit by productivity incentives and bonuses

21/41

2,448/4,895

Maldives

none for the private sector; the government establishes wage floors for government employment

Mali

28,000 CFA francs per month supplemented by a required package of benefits, including social security and health care

140

1,818

Malta

57.88 Maltese lira a week for adults, combined with an annual mandatory bonus of 214 Maltese lira and a 117 Maltese lira annual cost of living increase to all employees to reflect inflation; citizens are also entitled to additional government subsidies for housing, health care, and education

63

12,844

Marshall Islands

US$2.00 per hour for government and private sector employees

N/C

N/C

Mauritania

21,000 Mauritanian ouguiya per month for adults

104

2,646

Mauritius

517 Mauritian rupees per week for an unskilled worker in the Export Processing Zone (EPZ); 675 rupees per week for an unskilled factory worker outside the EPZ

18/23

2,320/3,029

Mexico

50.57 Mexican pesos a day in Zone A (Baja California, Federal District, State of Mexico, and large cities); 49 pesos a day in Zone B (Sonora, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, and Jalisco); and 47.60 pesos a day in Zone C (all other states)[citation needed]

14-15

1,611-1,711

Federated States of Micronesia

US$2.00 per hour for government workers and US$1.35 for private-sector workers in Pohnpei; US$1.25 per hour for government workers in Chuuk; US$1.49 per hour for government workers in Kosrae; US$0.80 per hour for government workers in Yap; US$2.64 for employment with the national government

N/C

N/C

Moldova

320 Moldovan lei a month for public sector employees and 700 lei for private sector employees

31/68

876/1,915

Monaco

same as the French minimum wage for full-time work, plus a 5% adjustment[8]

N/C

17,502

Mongolia

53,000 Mongolian tögrög per month for public and private sector workers

51

1,218

Montenegro

52 a month

N/C

N/C

Morocco

2,023 Moroccan dirhams per month in the industrialized sector and 56 dirhams per day for agricultural workers

89/149

4,424/7,376

Mozambique

1,440 meticais per month for industry and services; 1,020 meticais in the agricultural sector[12]

134/190

2,015/2,845

Myanmar

15,000 Myanma kyat a month for salaried public employees; 500 kyat per day for day laborers, supplemented by various subsidies and allowances

45/62

975/1,350

Namibia

no statutory minimum wage law; the mining, construction, and agricultural sectors set basic levels of pay through collective bargaining

Nauru

none

Nepal

1,940 Nepalese rupees a month for unskilled labor; 2,011 NRS for semi-skilled labor; 2,084 NRS for skilled labor; 2,299 NRS for highly skilled labor; additional allowances for food and other benefits totaled 503 NRS per month

96-114

1,795-2,128

Netherlands

1,284.60 per month

49

17,015

New Zealand

NZ$11.25 per hour for workers 18 years old or older, and NZ$9.00 per hour for those aged 16 or 17[13]; there is no statutory minimum wage for employees who are under 16 years old[citation needed][1]

62

15,822

Nicaragua

each key sector of the economy has a different minimum wage; ranges from 869 Nicaraguan córdobas in the agricultural sector to 2,018 córdobas in the financial sector

66-154

2,555-5,934

Niger

the lowest minimum wage was 20,000 CFA francs per month, with an additional 1,000 CFA francs added per month per child; set for each class and category within the formal sector

170

1,620

Nigeria

5,500 naira per month, nationally (with a 13 month year as the law mandates an extra month's pay for the Christmas holiday); some federal ministries, states, and private sector companies raised their minimum wage to 7500 naira for all employees

68

831

Norway

none; wages normally fall within a national scale negotiated by labor, employers, and the local government

Oman

set for various categories of workers; 100 Omani rials per month for most citizens, plus 20 rials for transportation and housing

27

5,180

Pakistan

2,500 Pakistani rupees per month for unskilled workers applying only to industrial and commercial establishments employing 50 or more workers

61

1,673

Palau

US$2.50 per hour; does not include foreign workers

N/C

N/C

Panama

ranges from 0.89 to 1.68 Panamanian balboas per hour, depending on the region and sector; the law establishes minimum wage rates for specific regions and for most categories of labor, excluding public sector workers[11]

43-82

3,636-6,863

Papua New Guinea

37.50 Papua New Guinean kina per week for adult workers in the private sector; 75% of the adult minimum wage for new entrants into the labor force between 16 and 21 years of age

70

1,880

Paraguay

1,198,000 Paraguayan guaraníes per month for private sector workers; there is no public sector minimum wage

166

8,774

Peru

486 Peruvian nuevos soles per month

54

3,607

Philippines

ranges from P200 a day for agricultural workers in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) to P350 a day for nonagricultural workers in the National Capital Region (NCR); set by tripartite regional wage boards

77-134

4,074-7,129

Poland

899 Polish złotych per month

40

5,918

Portugal

385.90 per month for full-time workers, rural workers, and domestic employees ages 18 and older

32

7,258

Qatar

none; the labor law provides the emir with authority to set a minimum wage, but he did not do so

Romania

370 Romanian lei per month for a full time schedule of 170 hours per month

29

2,817

Russia

1,100 Russian rubles per month

7

871

Rwanda

it varies according to the nature of the job

Samoa

WST$2.00 per hour[1]

67

4,393

Saint Kitts and Nevis

EC$150 per week for full-time domestic workers; EC$200 per week for skilled workers

25/33

4,384/5,846

Saint Lucia

EC$300 a month for office clerks; EC$200 for shop assistants; EC$160 for messengers

13-24

914-1,714

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

EC$25 per day for agriculture industry workers; EC$30 per day for industrial workers earned

56/67

4,545/5,455

San Marino

6.86 per hour[14]

N/C

15,854[15]/
16,515[16]

Saudi Arabia

none; de facto minimum wage for citizen workers is set based on the minimum monthly contribution to the pension system, which is now 1,500 Saudi riyals a month

33

5,562

Săo Tomé and Príncipe

500,000 Săo Tomé and Príncipe dobras per month for civil servants

103

1,725

Senegal

209.10 CFA francs per hour, nationally

109[1]-131[11]

2,196[1]-2,635[11]

Seychelles

SR2,325 per month in the public sector

57

10,179

Serbia

8,820 dinars per month

38

2,583

Sierra Leone

40,000 Sierra Leonean leones per month

65

577

Singapore

no laws or regulations

Slovakia

7,600 Slovak korún per month

31

5,400

Slovenia

125,052 tolars per month

N/C

N/C

Solomon Island

SI$1.50 per hour for all workers except those in the fishing and agricultural sectors, who receive SI$1.25[2]

59/70

1,222/1,467

Somalia

none

South Africa

R994 a month for farm workers in urban areas and R885 a month in rural areas; for domestics depends on the number of hours worked and ranges from R4.15 an hour to R6.04 an hour

30/33

3,794/4,262

Spain

540 per month

30

8,203

Sri Lanka

none, nationally; 38 wage boards established by the Ministry of Labor set minimum wages and working conditions by sector and industry

Sudan

12,500 Sudanese dinars per month

68

1,849

Suriname

none

Swaziland

300 Swazi emalangeni a month for a domestic worker; 420 emalangeni a month for an unskilled worker; 600 emalangeni a month for a skilled worker; 750 emalangeni for teachers

23-59

1,227-3,069

Sweden

none by law; set by annual collective bargaining contracts

Switzerland

none, which resulted in low wage structures for unskilled workers and skilled employees in the clothing, hospitality, and retail industries; however, a majority of the voluntary collective labor agreements contained clauses on minimum compensation, ranging from 2,200 to 4,200 francs per month for unskilled workers and from 2,800 to 5,300 francs per month for skilled employees

41-100

15,466-37,258

Syria

5,880 Syrian pounds per month for public sector workers, plus benefits, including compensation for meals, uniforms, and transportation; 5,880 Syrian pounds per month for private sector workers

85

3,487

Tajikistan

20 Tajikistani somoni per month

17

252

Tanzania

48,000 Tanzanian shillings per month for employment in the formal sector

140

1,121

Thailand

ranges from 140 Thai baht to 184 baht per day, depending on the cost of living in various provinces; set by provincial wage committees that sometimes include only employer representatives

31/41

2,831/3,721

Togo

ranges from 10,000 to 16,000 CFA francs a month

67-107

1,061-1,697

Tonga

none

Trinidad and Tobago

TT$9.00 per hour[1]

20

3,435

Tunisia

for the industrial sector: 231 Tunisian dinars per month for a 48-hour workweek and 200 dinars per month for a 40‑hour workweek; 7.58 dinars per day for specialized agricultural workers and 7.98 dinars per day for qualified agricultural workers

50-61

4,489-5,467

Turkey

531 Turkish new lira per month

84

7,613

Turkmenistan

1 to 1.5 million Turkmenistani manat per month in the state sector

55-82

4,688-7,032

Tuvalu

A$130 biweekly in the public sector; adopted by the private sector in most cases

N/C

N/C

Uganda

6,000 Ugandan shillings per month

13

206

Ukraine

400 Ukrainian hryven' per month

43

3,248

United Arab Emirates

none; officials do not approve any labor contracts that stipulate "substandard wages"

United Kingdom

ranges from £3.30 an hour to £5.35 depending on the age of the employee[11]

39-64

13,797-22,368

United States

the federal minimum wage is US$5.15 per hour now, although workers under age 20 can be paid US$4.25 an hour for their first 90 days. On May 23 2007, Congress passed a bill increasing to $7.25 over the next two years. A states may also set a minimum, in which case the higher of the two is controlling. Some states have minimum wage laws ranging from US$2.65 in Kansas (for some jobs not covered by the federal rate, i.e. those that receive substantial gratuity), to US$7.93 an hour in Washington; some cities and counties have living wage ordinances of up to US$15.00 an hour although the groups of workers it applies to are often limited (29 USC Sec. 206) (OK Statutes 40-197.5) (Revised Code of Washington Sec. 49.46.020)[17][1]

25

10,712

Uruguay

3,000 Uruguayan pesos per month

25

2,922

Uzbekistan

12,420 Uzbekistani som per month

21

469

Vanuatu

20,000 Vanuatu vatu per month

126

4,190

Venezuela

512,325 Venezuelan bolívares per month

43

3,094

Vietnam

for foreign‑investment joint ventures (monthly): 870 thousand Vietnamese đồng in urban districts of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City; 790 thousand VND in the suburban districts of Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and several other industrial districts and towns; and 710 thousand VND elsewhere; the government may temporarily exempt certain joint ventures from paying the minimum wage during the first months of an enterprise's operations or if the enterprise is located in a very remote area, but the minimum wage in these cases can be no lower than 710 thousand VND; 450,000 VND for the state sector; adjusted for inflation and other economic changes

48-92

1,602-3,098

Western Sahara

identical to those in Morocco

4,424/7,376

Yemen

none

Zambia

268,000 Zambian kwacha per month for nonunionized workers

99

1,068

Zimbabwe

gardener, Z$2,500 a month; cook/housekeeper, Z$2,656; child- or disabled-minder, Z$2,812); and child- or disabled-minder with Red Cross certification, Z$2,968

44-52

1,074-1,275

 

 

Thí dụ THPT dân lập quốc tế APU trực thuộc AMERICAN PACIFIC UNIVERSITY APU - HOA KỲ tại địa chỉ 286 Lănh Binh Thăng, Sài G̣n, học phí 12-14 triệu đồng/tháng, dạy theo chương tŕnh Mỹ.

 

Trường TH Quốc Tế Sài G̣n khu Nam quận 7 học phí 6200 đô-la Mỹ/năm được nói rơ trong Website bên dưới:

 http://www2.thanhnien.com.vn/Giaoduc/2006/4/15/145480.tno

 

KẾT LUẬN:

 

Muốn GDP phát triển phải có một nền giáo dục tự do và độc lập, chính phủ đừng can thiệp vào chính sách gíáo dục của các viện Đại Học.  Muốn kinh tế tiến bộ th́ phải đầu tư về giáo dục, nhất là phát triển về giáo dục kỹ thuật, bỏ các môn không cần thiết như triết học Mác-xít (môn này chỉ nên dành cho khoa giáo dạy trong trường đảng)  thêm giờ học Anh văn và tin học (Information science).

 

Mở rộng cửa Đại Học cho các sinh viên hiếu học, v́ khi phát triển kinh tế mà thiếu nhân lực th́ không thể kiếm ở đâu được v́ toàn cầu đều thiếu kỹ sư phần mềm  (software) và phần cứng (hardware) có kinh nghiệm cũng như kỹ sư thiết kế (design engineer) và kỹ sư kiến trúc (architect engineer), kỹ sư kiểm tra chất lượng (quality control engineer), kỹ sư hệ thống (system engineer) rất cần thiết trong việc chế tạo các loại máy điện toán đặc biệt dùng trong vệ tinh, phi thuyền hoặc các hỏa tiễn tinh khôn dùng trong quốc pḥng v.v…

 

Ngoài ra, các lớp cao học và tiến sĩ thuộc ngành kỹ sư, điện toán (computer science), các lớp luật quốc tế, thương mại nên dạy bằng Anh ngữ, để các sinh viên sau khi tốt nghiệp có đủ khả năng ngoại ngữ khi đi du học hoăc làm với công ty nước ngoài.

 

 

  

 


Tham khảo:

Trong việc hoàn tất loạt bài này, tác giả đă tham khảo những tài liệu sau đây:

 

  Các Websites liên hệ được trích dẫn trong bài viết.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_Domestic_Product

http://www.g-8.de/Webs/G8/EN/Homepage/home.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_minimum_wage

http://www.aneki.com/nobel.html

http://www2.thanhnien.com.vn/Giaoduc/2006/4/15/145480.tno

 

 

Nguyễn Văn Thành
       
15
/7/2007