written in 2017
by Tan Tran, Ph. D.
This paper is in copyright. No reproduction
of any part
may take place without the written permission of the author
This esay is
an introduction to Meditation and Enlightenment via
The first part is a continuation of the previous
paper, Theoretical Concepts of Universality.
LAW OF CAUSE AND EFFECT
In the Paper, Theoretical Concepts of
Universality, we have seen the three mental functions of
a body/spirit: sensitivity, emotion, and mind produced by
electric charge density ϭ on the skin, conduction current
density ρbound, and free current density ρfree.
The natural process sensitivity-emotion-mind continues to
two more functions: word and action. Now we look at the
issues of those two last things.
The density of displacement current DtE
is the issue of WORD.
For ACTION we look at equation 4 of the
system of equations
divB = 0
In vector calculus, we know
for any vector A, which suggests that vector B
is the curl of some vector A. It is true that there
is a vector A such that
B = curlA
A is called in electromagnetism vector
We can express E directly in term of A
curlE = - DtB
= - Dt(curlA)
curlE = - curl(DtA)
E = - DtA
In our study of body/spirit activities, that
vector A is the issue of ACTION for the
The process of five steps
sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action is the main generative
force that produces karma and makes change on
karma. The karma was produced by that five-steps-process in
the past, and in the present the five-steps-process
contributes to the change of karma, which will continue
effecting the future life of the body/spirit. It is the
law of cause and effect.
Since sensitivity, emotion, mind, word and action of
a body/spirit are due to the spirit, the spirit is charged
with the past karma in the next incarnation into a new body
for a new life, and the karma during the whole new life will
effect the death of the body. It is the cycle of life and
death. The spirit carries the karma from the past to the
future life. The next incarnation is a consequence of the
karma from the past.
GRAVITATION AND KARMA
We have seen
the two systems of equations for gravitation and for karma.
The two systems look analogous with different
interpretations of the coefficients ε and μ. Now we write
them in a unified form
curlE = - DtB
= εμDtE +μJ
divB = 0
where E, B represent the total fields of gravitation or
karma (electromagnetism) in both material and spiritual
worlds; J represents the total of bound and free
currents; ρ represents the total density of mass-energy or
of electric charge in both worlds; and ε and μ represent the
characteristic coefficients of gravitation and mass-energy
or of karma and consciousness.
In vacuum, there is no mass, no electric charge,
and no currents, the above system of equations becomes
= - DtB
divB = 0
With that system of equations, we study the
propagation of the fields E and B in vacuum.
WAVE FORM OF GRAVITATION PROPAGATION.
On 14 September, 2015 scientists at LIGO (Laser
Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) in Louisiana
and Washington have detected gravitation waves between 2
enormous black holes from billion years ago.
predicted the wave form of gravitation 100 years before. Now
we can show the wave aspect of gravitation theoretically
with the system of equations for gravitation.
Consider the system of 4 equations for gravitation.
We work here in the uni-system of coordinates OXY
defined in the paper Theoretical Concepts of Universality.
Let's take the derivative with respect to time of
equation 2 of the system
from equation 1
curl(-curlE) = εμDttE
But we know
E ) = ▼(▼E ) - ▼2E
From equation 3 in the system
= divE = 0
So ▼2E = εμDttE
(1) is a partial differential vector equation of second order
in E and it represents a set of equations for the 3
components of E=(Ex,Ey,Ez)
To simplify the solution, we consider the
propagation of the wave plane along the X-axis with velocity
q, and the vector E is supposed to be in the
XY-plane, E being perpendicular to q. See Fig
Then Ex=0 and Ez=0;
E=Ey is a function of t and x only.
Equation (1) becomes
(2) DxxE =
Equation (2) is called wave equation, of which a
solution has the form
(3) E = E0
Thus the propagation of E has a sine form with amplitude E0
and speed of propagation q. The universal speed is
q=|(v|jw)|=|v2-w2)| where v is the
material speed and w the spiritual speed.
Differentiate solution (3) twice with respect to x
DxxE = - E0
with respect to t
DttE = - q2E0
Substitute in equation (2)
-E0 sin(x-qt) =
Simplifying both sides yields with q2= |(v|jw)2|
εμq2 = 1
(εμ)-1/2 = q
The speed of the wave propagation q equals (εμ)-1/2.
Now we proceed with the vector B.
= - DttB
= - DttB
curl(curlB) = -εμDttB
B) = ▼(▼B) - ▼2B
▼B = divB = 0
(4) ▼2B = εμDttB
As we know the vector B is perpendicular to both
vectors E and q, so B is in the XZ
Bx = By = 0 and B = Bz
is function of t and x only
Equation (4) becomes
(4)' DxxB = εμDttB
Solution to equation (4)' has the form
(5) B = B0 sin(x-qt)
Then take the second partial derivatives of B
DxxB = -B0
DttB = -q2B0
- B0 sin(x-qt) = -εμq2B0
(6) εμq2 = 1
(7) (εμ)-1/2 = q
We get the same formula as before. We call (6) or (7) the
rule of coefficients.
also to determine the constants E0 and B0.
take the 2 equations
curlE = - DtB
the definition of curl in vector calculus
and E=Ey=function of t and x only
= DxE iz
= E0 cos(x-qt) iz
With the assumptions above we have
DxE = E0
DxB = B0
Differentiate E and B with respect to t
DtE = - q E0
DtB = - q B0
So E0 cos(x-qt) = q B0
= εμq E0 cos(x-qt)
Simplifying cos(x-qt), we have
E0 = q B0
and B0 = εμq E0
and E0 = εμq2
E0 and B0 = εμq2 B0
Consequently we get again the rule of coefficients
E0 = qB0
theory of electromagnetism, people assume q=c, then
The above calculations show that the gravitation fields
E and B are in the wave form
obeying the rule of coefficients. Note that the
gravimagnetic B is discovered in the theory of
universality but not yet detected even after the detection
of the gravitation wave in 2015.
The same argument shows that electromagnetic fields –
karma – also have wave form obeying the rule of coefficients.
The rule of coefficients contains 3 factors ε, μ, q with
product εμq2 equal to 1.
RULE OF COEFFICIENTS.
If we take the wave functions in the form
E = E0
B = B0
is the wave length (period), after the same calculations as
above, we have the same rule of coefficients εμq2
In the theory of universality we have
q2 = v2
v and w
are the material and spiritual speeds.
If we consider only the material world, then q2=v2.
Working in the material world (w=0 and q=v) Maxwell in 1856
found the formula (εμ)-1/2 = v for
electromagnetic wave propagation by which he calculated, at
his time, the expression (εμ)-1/2 approximately
equal to the speed of light c. Then he identified light
with electromagnetic waves.
Today we have the precise values in classical notations
= 299,792,458 meters/sec
μ0 = 4π x 10-7
ε0 = (4π x 8,987551787 x
We are going to find essential properties of the rule of
of coefficients depends on ε, μ and the speed q. The speed q
= v2 - w2
distinguishes our system of 4 equations from that of Maxwell
in electromagnetism and from that of the theories in today
physics . The presence of the spiritual speed w is essential
in studying the universe of dual worlds. In the formula of
the universal coefficient γ=(1-v2/c2+w2/c2)-1/2
we see that an event can move with speed greater than the
speed of light c.
the study of the wave form of gravitation.
Let's have more comments on the universe where we are living
In our universe, the coefficients ε and μ have
characteristic meanings of the gravitation and mass-energy.
We can adopt the precise values of ε0 and μ0
given above as the characteristics of our universe. But the
reader would be surprised if we give to ε and μ other
values. Most people believe that our universe is unique in
the sense that there are no other universes different from
ours. But if one practices meditation to a high level, that
person will see many universes other than ours. It is not
superstition, but real existence which people can not see
due to ignorance. We can envisage it as follows. The
different values of ε
and μ are the characteristics of other infinitely many
universes that meditation can reveal to us. To understand
this, one has to learn and practice super-religion that
shows The Right Way to Enlightenment. Each value of
characterizes the space-time of one universe and each value
of μ characterizes energy-mass in that universe.
Those characteristic values of different universes could be
found in some special circumstance later in the future.
Now we look at the karma system.
The system of 4 equations for karma was derived from the
theoretical equations of electromagnetism in matter.
we can write the equations for karma with 2 coefficients ε
and μ in the same way as for gravitation. We can assert it
because our theory of universality assumes the essential
role of internal energy of a body/spirit, and consequently
the self-polarization in the body/spirit.
Then with an argument similar to that for gravitation, we
also have the rule of coefficients for karma (εμ)-1/2
= q or εμq2=1.
For karmic fields, ε and μ may have different specific
meanings in the theory of karma.
We know that different species of living beings have
different methods of alimentary nourishing and different
structures of the body, which provide different internal
energies and different ways of self-polarization in the
body. For example, humans, elephants, fish, birds, trees
have different ways of living and different forms of body.
We have seen in the paper Theoretical Concepts of
Universality the electric dipole p in a
dielectric polarized by an external electric field
E may be supposed to be proportional to E
= α E
atomic polarizability α is a specific coefficient of the
material element: different elements have different atomic
In the context of self-polarization inside a body/spirit,
different species have different coefficient ε. We say ε
is the karmic coefficient of the species. So
humans, elephants, fish, birds, trees have different karmic
coefficients. For a particular species, for example humans,
each individual has a different coefficient μ. So μ is
called the individualistic coefficient of the individual
in the species.
The karmic coefficient
and the individualistic coefficient μ
are related to the universal speed q by the rule of
Actually the three factors
ε, μ, q
appear together as a product (εμq2)
which is called the self or ego
of each individual.
of propagation q of the karmic-consciousness field varies
with the coefficients ε, μ of each individual in a species.
Later on we will explore more about it.
INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO INDIVIDUALS
now study relations between two individuals like a man and a
woman, or a spirit and a body.
In the previous section, we have seen the equation of
propagation of a field E
the propagation with speed q along the X-axis, and the field
E assumed to be in the XY-plane, we have equation (2)
And a solution to (2) has the form
E = E0
The graph of that function is a periodic sine-curve. E0
is the amplitude. The period of that sine-curve is λ=2π on
vector B we have a similar wave equation in the
solution of sine form
B = B0
apply those results to the interaction between a man and
up the problem as follows.
a man and a woman are at a distance d apart on the x-axis.
functions for the man are
E = E0
B = B0
up the functions E' and B' for the woman, See Fig
A is at the origin O, the woman B on the x-axis, AB=d˃0. The
waves E of man A propagate with velocity q˃0, the waves E'
of woman B propagate in opposite direction at velocity
-q'˂0. Consider a point C, OC=x˃0 and BC=x'˂0. Note that the
waves E' of woman B are exactly the same as the waves E'
starting from O to the left at the same velocity -q'˂0. So
the functions of E' and B' are
E' = E0'
B' = B0'
x-x' = d
x' = x – d
E' = E0' sin(x-d+q't)
B' = B0' sin(x-d+q't)
waves E and E' interfere in the XY-plane, and B and B'
interfere in the XZ-plane.
E + E' = E0 sin(x-qt) + E0'
B + B' = B0 sin(x-qt) + B0'
graphs sum up in a complicated shape (We don't draw a figure
in this general case) because of the differences between E0
and E0', B and B0', q and q', and
because of the arbitrary distance d: that shows the 2
persons have no particular influence on one another.
now the 2 persons are under similar conditions of karmic
and individualistic coefficients εμq2 such as
q=q', E0=E0', B=B0'.
E + E' = E0 sin(x-qt)
+ E0 sin(x-d+qt)
B + B' = B0 sin(x-qt)
+ B0 sin(x-d+qt)
E + E' = E0
[sin(x-qt) + sin(x-d+qt)]
B + B' = B0
[sin(x-qt) + sin(x-d+qt)]
(10) E + E' = 2E0
(11) B + B' = 2B0
graphs of E+E' and B+B' have the factor sin(x-d/2)
representing sine curves with period 2π. The factor
cos(qt-d/2) represents the oscillations of the waves in wave
planes perpendicular to the x-axis at point x.
points on the x-axis where E+E'=0 and B+B'=0 are
x-d/2 = kπ
x = d/2 + kπ
points are fixed on the x-axis. We say the waves of E+E' and
B+B' are standing waves.
interpret the above cases as deep emotion between two
persons in contact. They may be in love or in dear
cases of standing waves also explain the incarnation of a
spirit into a body to make a living being.
can see some particular cases.
additions of the functions E and E', B and B' are
(12) E +
E' = E0 sin(x-qt)+E0sin(x-2nπ+qt) = 2E0
(13) B +
B' = -B0 sin(x-qt)-B0 sin(x-2nπ+qt) =
graph of (12) is in the XY-plane and the graph of (13) in
the XZ-plane. The waves of the man and the woman
always continue propagating in opposite directions along the
X-axis, but the points where E+E' and B+B' are always zero
sinx = 0,
x = kπ
points x=kπ are always fixed on the x-axis. The interference
waves are standing waves.
have E + E' = E0 sin(x-qt) + E0
B + B' = -B0 sin(x-qt) - B0
So E + E' = E0 sin(x-qt) - E0
E + E' = -2E0 cosx sin(qt)
(15) B + B' = -2B0 cosx sin(qt)
points fixed on the X-axis, where E + E' = 0 and B + B' = 0,
cosx = 0
x = π/2 + kπ
interference waves are also standing.
reader can envisage other cases of interference of waves to
interpret the relationship between two individuals in a
that each species of living beings has a specific karmic
coefficient ε which characterizes that species. Within a
species, each individual has an individualistic coefficient
μ which characterizes special traits of that individual.
Those coefficients obey the rule of coefficient
community has a specific karmic coefficient, people in there
have similar thinking, similar wording, and similar acting.
The religious cults are examples of karmic coefficients
society, some animals may have their product εμq2
of karmic coefficients close to that of persons, and their
behavior is adorable to people: such are the cases of pets
like dogs, cats, birds... which can live friendly with
considered the simplest case of sinusoidal functions.
Actually the propagation of waves is more complex than sine
functions, but always periodic. We know that a
periodic functions can be decomposed to a sum of sine
functions each of which represents a mental activity. We
have five categories of mental activities:
sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action which form the 5-step
process of life. Sensitivity is due to the surface current
on the skin, emotion due to the bound current of electric
dipoles, mind due to the free current of free electrons,
word due to the displacement current, and action due to the
vector potential. Each of those currents produces a wave
propagation. All the waves interfere and superpose together
with a complex graph. Each wave has a different amplitude,
wave length, and speed. In some short period of time, one
wave amplitude may be much greater than the others, and the
correspondent effect has the most influence to the
body/spirit, e.g. when one person is in the cold, the cold
sensitivity dominates the other things, or when a person
falls in love, the emotion is the most important for that
laboratory, scientists have detected photons in the
propagation of electric field between 2 electric charges.
That shows the propagation of waves is quantized. A wave
in motion is together with a quantum in motion, and a
quantum in motion is together with a wave in motion. It
is the principle of complementarity in quantum mechanics.
that principle, the gravitation has quantum called
graviton, other waves are also quantized.
1924 L. de Broglie postulated the formula for a wave and the
λ = h/p
the wave length, p=mv is the linear momentum of the
particle, and h is the Planck constant
h = 6.6 10-24
1900, Planck postulated that the energy related to a light
E = hc/λ
the speed of light.
quanta corresponding to light, electromagnetic, gravitation,
karma waves...are called photons.
photon has no mass.
shown that a photon is a combination of 2 opposite masses: a
material mass +m and a spiritual mass -m. The mass of a
photon is therefore
(+m)+(-m) = 0
kinetic energy of a photon with speed v is
(1/2)mv2 + (1/2)(-m)(-v2)
= mv2= pv
the material speed square is v2 and the spiritual
speed square is -v2. The momentum of photon is
1970 scientists have discovered the existence of
anti-matter, e.g. electron has positron, a particle has
anti-particle...The concept of anti-matter is our concept of
spiritual-matter by the principle of universality
(m) of particle + mass (-m) of anti-particle = 0
words, a material mass (m) has an opposite spiritual mass
(-m). Furthermore, every event in the material world has a
correspondent event in the spiritual world. If we use the
“anti” language, we can say a material event has anti-event
(e.g. equation divE=ερ has anti-equation divE'=ε'ρ'.)
point we have unified the system of equations for
gravitation with the system of equations for karma.
sciences physics, scientists have 4 systems of forces:
gravitational fores, electromagnetic forces, strong forces,
and weak forces which many scientists expect to make a
grand unified system for the universe.
that, let's look at the scientific researches and
discoveries in physics so far.
seen above the principle of complementarity for particles
let's summarize briefly the structure of atoms.
atom has a positively charged nucleus with negatively
charged electrons orbiting around.
electron mass me is
me = 9.109 389 7 x
electric charge of electron is
-e = -1.602 177 33 x 10-19
outline below is taken from the article “Atoms” by A.P.
French in Encyclopedia of Physics, 2nd Edition,
spatial states of an individual electron could be determined
by 3 quantum integer numbers n, l, m. The value of n, called
the principal number, defines the electron energy just as
in the Bohr theory. But the identification of a state
also requires 2 quantum numbers l, m that define the orbital
angular momentum of magnitude [l(l+1)]1/2h/2π of
the electron and the projection of magnitude mh/2π of this
orbital angular momentum along a specified axis. The quantum
analysis requires that 0 ≤ l ≤n-1 and -l ≤ m ≤ +l.
partial table of the shell structure up to Z=86 is the
of (n,l) Shell capacity cumulative total
Pauli, then in 1925 Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit assumed that the
full quantum state of an electron, in addition to 3 numbers
n, l, m, depends on one more number that is the intrinsic
spin ±1/2 of the electron in the atom corresponding to 2
quantized projections ±h/4π of the spin angular momentum.
This allows a total of 2(2l+1) different quantum states for
given values of n, l.
Pauli introduced the exclusion principle (1924) according
to which no two electrons can have the same set of quantum
numbers. This principle is the fundamental key to the
internal structure of atoms. The electrons in an atom are
forced to orbit on shells of progressively increasing energy
around the nucleus.
just seen that an atom is composed of a positively charged
nucleus and electrons with negative charge orbiting around
the nucleus on different shells.
look at the composition of the nucleus.
is an outline from Adair's paper “Quarks” in Encyclopedia of
Physics, 2nd Edition, VHS.
1950, a group named SU(2) assummed that a nucleus contains
2 kinds of particles called baryons that attract one
another with strong forces. The baryons are protons and
neutrons. The proton is positively charged and the neutron
is electrically neutral.
mass of a proton is
mp = 1.672 623 1
proton-electron mass ration is
= 1 836.152 701 x 10-3
electric charge e+ of a proton is the
opposite of the charge e- of the electron.
A proton has a spin of ½.
neutron has about the same mass as a proton, and has a spin
Scientists discovered that between 2 electric charges there
is exchange of photons with mass 0 and spin 1 in their
electromagnetic interactions. In Yukawa model for baryons,
there is exchange of mesons between 2 baryons in their
strong interactions. The mesons are of 3 kinds different
only in their electric charges: π+ is positively charged, π-
is negatively charged, and π0 is electrically
neutral. The mass of a meson is 270 times that of an
electron. A meson has spin 0. The baryons and mesons are
called together the hadrons. However, in spite of the
many similarities between electromagnetism and the strong
interactions, there are profound differences. While the
electromagnetic field is a vector field described as 3
numbers that transform the components of a vector, the
strong interaction is described as only 1 number (like a
pressure field): the strong field is scalar field (a pseudo
1960 many more hadrons and many more mesons were discovered
in strong interactions, some holding a new quality called
hyper-charge. Hyper-charge is a quantum number relating to s
Wigner formed a technical group called SU(4) with a
description of protons of spins up and down, and of neutrons
of spins up and down. That pattern is less transparent.
1961, Murray Gell-Mann and Yuval Neemann found a group
labeled SU(3) which assumes the fractional electric
charges -e/3 and +2e/3. Those particles are named the quarks
u, d, s. All the quarks have spin-1/2 (called fermions in
quantum mechanics) and have strong interactions.
u (for up) has electric charge 2e/3
d (for down) has electric charge -e/3
s (for strange) has electric charge -e/3
of u = few MeV/c2, a little greater than mass of
of s = 100 MeV/c2
proton is uud
neutron is udd
Scientists also discovered anti-matter,
e.g. mass m has anti-mass -m, quark q has anti-quark
u has anti-quark
d has anti-quark
pions have compositions:
π+ is u
π0 is u
u or d d
scientists discovered a new quark c (for charm)
c has electric charge +2e/3
of c = 1.5 mass of proton
have now 2 pairs of partners: u – d, and, c – s
Lederman discovered the 5th quark b (for bottom)
b has electric charge -e/3
of b = 5 times mass of proton
scientist believed but not yet found a 6th quark
t (for top)
t has electric mass +2e/3
of t = 100 times mass of proton.
the 3rd pair of partners t-b.
6 quarks u, d, c, s, b, t are called flavors.
flavor has 3 colors: red, yellow, blue (electric properties
of flavors in strong force.) In total there are 18 colors
u red, u yellow, u blue
similar for d, s, c, b, t
each quark has an anti-quark. So there are 18 colors for
there are 3 quarks families (different scales in
electricity) forming 3 generations with quite difference of
Family u-d, masses few MeV/c2
c-s, masses 1.5 protons - 100 MeV/c2
t-b, masses 100 protons - 5 protons
Scientists also found leptons, particles with spin -1/2
(fermions) that are not subject to strong force and that are
believed to be truly elementary and not composed of quarks
or other subunits. The leptons are electrons, muons, and
muon is similar in most respect to the electron except that
it is unstable and is positively charged.
Mass of muon = 207 times mass of
tau-lepton is unstable with mass
Mass of tau = 3,500 times mass of
Electron e has electron-neutrino νe; muon μ has
muon-neutrino νμ; tau τ has tau-neutrino ντ.
The neutrinos have mass zero.
leptons form 3 families (different in scales of electricity)
with 3 generations of leptons and neutrinos that do not hold
any color charges. Therefore they do not take part in strong
interactions. But they play a role in weak interactions
similar to that of quarks in strong interactions. The 3
generations of leptons have different scales of mass.
Family e-νe, mass of electron
Family μ-νμ, mass of muon 105
τ-ντ, mass of tau 1785 MeV/c2
see that the 3 generations of quarks (strong force) seem
conjoining the 3 generations of leptons (weak force). But
how many generations of quarks are there in the universe? We
need to find the possible number of generations of neutrinos
to determine the number of generations of quarks.
have anti-neutrinos. So how many generations of neutrinos
are there in the universe?
any theories of the universe, we must go back to the early
times of the beginning of everything.
Astrophysicists use their understanding of cosmology and
the knowledge of the relative abundance of primordial
hydrogen, deuterium, and helium to guess the number of
generations of neutrinos. In the early universe, if we
assume there are 3 generations of neutrinos and
anti-neutrinos, then the energy of 3 generations would
account for about 49% of the energy of the universe with the
photons taking 51%. If we assume 4 generations, the
neutrinos' energy would be 56% of the total energy leaving
44% to the photons. The assumption of 3 generations of
neutrinos and anti-neutrinos fit best the data. And we can
assert that there are certainly not more than 5 possible
weak force and the strong force have similarity as follows.
Between two leptons there is weak force with the exchange
of massless photons with spin 1.
Between two quarks there is strong force with the exchange
of massless gluons with spin 1.
may suggest a possible unification of the weak and strong
we outline the article Quarkonium by Elliot Bloom in the
further study of the heavy quarks c and b found the
existence of 2 heavy mesons: charmonium c
c ( c
is anti c) and beautonium b b ( b is anti b.)
Those heavy mesons are called quarkoniums. Their binding
energy is small compared to the quark mass, and so the
quarks move at a small fraction of the speed of light. The
use of charmonium as a bed for the color force was initiated
with the discovery of the J/ψ meson in 1974, the first of a
spectrum of charmonium c c bound states, with a mass
of 3095 MeV/c2. The mass of the proton is about
30% of the mass of the J/ψ mesons. The name J/ψ comes from
simultaneous discoveries of 2 different groups, one led by
Samuel Ting at the Brookhaven National Laboratory naming the
particle for J, the other group led by Burton Richter at the
Stanford Linear Accelerator (SALC) naming it for ψ. Richter
and Ting jointly received 1976 Nobel price for the
1977 Leon Lederman at the Fermi National Accelerator
Laboratory (Fermilab) discovered a larger spectrum of
b states named Y with mass 9460 MeV/c2,
about 10 times the mass of the proton.
far particle scientists can not isolate a free quark,
because the strong force between 2 colors is inversely
proportional to the distance square, but at distance less
than 10-13 centimeters, the force has a constant
value about 16 tons independent of the distance. They
conclude that a free quark does not exist.
we outline some information of the article “Mesons” by Malcolm Derrick.
Mesons consist of quark-antiquark pair q
bound together by strong force, which is mediated by the
gluons. The quantum numbers of the mesons are specified by
the intrinsic properties of the quarks and the spectroscopic
state of the spin or orbital angular momentum. The mesons
can also carry flavor property of s, c, and b. Most mesons
decay strongly with lifetime 10-24 sec. High-mass
mesons involving u and d quarks decay by giving π mesons.
Mesons with s, c, b decay to a K( sd), D(c d),
B( bd) meson plus π mesons. These lowest-lying states
mesons decay weakly with lifetimes in the range 10-8
-10-10 sec. In strong-interaction theory,
the gluons also interact strongly and should be composed to
form new particles called glueballs. But so far, no
glueballs have yet been seen.
The lowest mass meson, called the π meson, predicted
by Yukawa 40 years ago are not completely understood today.
summarize the description above as follows.
Sciences have been developed in two parallel routes:
the discovery of anti-matter as opposite to matter, and the
decomposition of particles to the scales of quarks, flavors
and colors. The two routes of sciences concur in
super-science that explores the two material and spiritual
worlds and reaches the frontier of the universe.
of fractional electric charge -e/3 and +2e/3 suggests that
there are sub-particles with electric charges ε=e/3 and
η=2e/3 and anti-charges
ε and η which are
positive or negative
ε ε- η η-
sub-particles can stand single, or combined in 2 called
bios, or combined in 3 called trios. For example
εε- εη ε-η …
ε-ηη εε-η …
Beside those sub-particles and anti sub-particles,
there are neutrinos.
Those sub-particles can be combined with neutrinos.
Thus there is a great number of combinations of
sub-particles and sub-neutrinos, which scientists will take
time to discover and detect in the future. Some dozens of
those sub-particles and sub-neutrinos were already
discovered and detected by scientists and were given
different names along their separate experiments as we have
just seen above.
Furthermore, in the future we can go on decomposing
the sub-particles and sub-neutrinos into smaller particles,
then smaller and smaller, and so on…
While the particles still have material mass and
anti-mass, or charge and anti-charge, we can decompose them
again and over again. Finally we will reach the final
state of particle-no-particle that is the state of
no-rest-no-motion of energy. Particle-no-particle is
non-decomposable. The state of no-rest-no-motion of energy
with particle-no-particle is the absolute state of the
absolute state of the universe, we can define an absolute
frame of reference. And in an absolute frame of reference we
can define 2 relative systems in relative motion with one
Yet we have defined the absolute space.
The next step is the absolute time. How do we define
the absolute time?
Time is defined by motion. In the universe,
consider all motions of all the masses and energies in both
material and spiritual worlds. The resultant velocity of
all those motions is a vector called vector of the
universe, which may vary or is constant beyond our human
knowledge. So mathematically, mechanically and
physically we assume that the vector of the universe is
constant. That constant resultant of velocity defines the
absolute motion of the universe which manifests the
With two relative frames of reference in motion relatively to
one another, for an event we have 2 different systems of
relative coordinates and two different relative times. So
when studying a relative motion of an event with respect to
the two relative systems, we must distinguish the absolute
coordinates from the relative coordinates, and distinguish
the absolute time from the two relative times in the two
systems of reference.
Now we look
back at the equations of transformation of coordinates in
the Paper, Theoretical Concepts of Universality, to see
clearly the distinction of absolute coordinates and time
from the relative coordinates and times in 2 relative
systems OXYZ and O'X'Y'Z'. Remember that in the thought
experiment we assume that the system (O') moves along the
axis OX uniformly with velocity q. Thus with respect
to the system (O'), (O) moves on the axis O'X' uniformly in
opposite direction with velocity -q. And we have
established the 4 equations
Y' = Y
Z' = Z
The inverse system of equations is
X = (X'+qt')(1-q2/c2)-1/2
t = (t'+(q/c2)X')(1-q2/c2)-1/2
Z = Z'
In the 2 above systems of equations, X,Y,Z,t and
X',Y',Z',t' represent the coordinates and time of the same
event in 2 relative frames.
Let's examine the assumption in the above thought
experiment of 2 systems moving in uniform motion relatively
to one another.
There are 3 observers (not 2): one observer in the
absolute system with absolute time τ, two observers in the
relative systems (O) and (O') with relative times t and t'.
For the absolute observer, the thought experiment can be
described as follows. Two points O and O' move on the same
axis in opposite directions with relative velocities -q and
q. Suppose at time τ=0, the 2 points start at a point Ω on
the line Ωu which is the same as the lines OX and O'X'. The
point Ω is the fixed origin of the absolute reference. The
point O' left the point O at a relative velocity q but left
the point Ω (midpoint of OO') at the absolute velocity q/2.
Similarly, O left Ω at the absolute velocity -q/2. At time
τ, we have ΩO=u= -qτ/2 and ΩO'=u'=qτ/2. The absolute
velocity of O' is du'/dτ=q/2, and the absolute velocity of O
is du/dτ=-q/2. Thus for the absolute observer we can write
du/dτ + du'/dτ = 0
which satisfies the assumption of uniform linear motion of (O)
and (O') relative to one another. The absolute observer
sees the 2 simultaneous events (O) and (O')moving in
opposite directions with opposite velocities. That is the
concept of simultaneity in our theory of uni-relativity.
Remark that in the sense of uni-relativity (2
relative frames within an absolute frame) for an event with
coordinates X, Y, Z, and time t in the system OXYZ, and with
coordinates X',Y' Z' and time t' in the system O'X'Y'Z',
the relative velocity of the event in OXYZ is
dX/dt = (dX'+qdt')/[dt'+(q/c2)dX']
And the relative velocity of the same event in
dX'/dt' = (dX/dt-q)/[1-(q/c2)dX/dt]
Since Y=Y', Z=Z', but dt≠dt',
dZ/dt ≠ dZ'/dt'
So in the relativistic sense, the relative
velocities of the same event in the 2 relative systems are
in 3 directions (not in the only direction of the motion.)
assumption that the 2 relative systems (O) and (O') move
with opposite uniform linear motions relatively to one
another is meaningful for the view of the absolute
observer. The 2 relative observers see the relative
velocities of the same event completely different in
We can find
out how each of the 2 observers sees the velocity of the
O' in the system O'X'Y'Z' has relative coordinates and time
X' = (X-qt)(1-q2/c2)-1/2
t' = (t-qX/c2)(1-q2/c2)-1/2
Z' = 0
So from the
equation of X', we have
X = qt
observer (O) sees (O') moving with relative velocity
proceed with the inverse coordinates of the pointO'
X = (X'+qt')(1-q2/c2)-1/2
t = (t'+qX'/c2)(1-q2/c2)-1/2
Y = 0
Z = 0
X/t = qt'/t'
X = qt
dX/dt = q
It is the
same result: (O) sees (O') moving with relative velocity
observer (O') sees (O) moving with relative velocity
dX'/dt' = -q
just computed the 2 relative velocities dX/dt=q and
dX'/dt'=-q for 2 different events, so we
can not add them and we can not write
dX'/dt' = 0
That is the 2 relative observers can not see the
simultaneity in their relative motion. Even if we
suppose that the 2 relative observers have 2 synchronized
clocks when they start moving, we can not figure out
simultaneity of the 2 systems if there is NO absolute
PRINCIPLE OF UNCERTAINTY
the reader need to know some basic of the principle of
uncertainty in physics of Heisenberg, we outline the
mathematical proof of it from the article “Quantum
Mechanics” by Ernest Seglie and Susan Fox in Encyclopedia of
Physics, 2nd Edition, VHS.
problem is that in doing research with particles, many
experiments can be understood with only particle aspect,
while others only with wave aspect. To explain the dual
aspect wave-particle, Heisenberg introduced the principle of
UNCERTAINTY ON MOMENTUM AND SPACE
while studying the black box in thermodynamics, Planck
assumed the equation
(16) E = hc/λ
E is the
energy of light quantum, c is the speed of light, λ is the
wave length, and h is the Planck constant
h = 6.626
075 5 10-34 J sec
L. de Broglie assumed that the wave length λ is associated
with the momentum p=mv of a particle by the equation
(17) λ = h/p
a particle supposed to be within a region Δx (assume 1
dimension x.) Let N be the number of waves in Δx, but we
don't know precisely where the waves begin and terminate in
N = Δx/λ±1 (minimum error assumed to
λ = Δx/(
for λ yields
λ = λ± λ2/
Δλ = λ2/
/Δx = 1
Broglie equation, differentiating p with respect to λ gives
= | Δp/h|
(19) Δp Δx ~ h
the error on N is greater than or equal to 1, we have the
uncertainty on the momentum and the position
(20) Δp Δx ≥ h
UNCERTAINTY ON ENERGY AND TIME
have uncertainty on energy and time by computing
typically the uncertainty on the lifetime Δt of an
excited state and the energy E of the state of a
energy is measured by the wave length λ of the photon
emitted by the de-excitation process.
photons, an analysis similar to above gives equation (18)
/Δx = 1
measures the maximum photon wave length which can not be
longer than c Δt, and Δt is
from excitation to de-excitation.
/(Δx/c) = 1
the time it takes for the decay, since Δx/Δt=c.
differentiating E with respect to λ in the Planck equation
(17) we have
ΔE = |(hc/λ2)Δλ|
(21) ΔE Δt ≥ h
the uncertainty on energy and time.
uncertainty on momentum and position (20) is the
uncertainty on mass and space and the uncertainty (21)
is the uncertainty on energy and time.
UNCERTAINTY ON SPACE AND TIME
the determinations of mass, energy, space and time all have
we take the product of the 2 inequalities (20) and (21)
above, we have
ΔE Δx Δt ≥ h2
ΔE] [Δx Δt] ≥ h2
virtue of the equation E=mc2, we see that the
first bracket [Δ(mv) ΔE] concerns mass and energy
[Δ(Ev/c2) ΔE] =
(ΔE)2v/c2 +E ΔE Δ(v/c2)
assume v< c2, and Δv< c2.
(ΔE)2v/c2 +E ΔE
Δ(v/c2) < (ΔE)2+E ΔE
determination of space and time, let's assume
< k, then from (22) we have:
(23) Δx Δt ≥ h2/k
means there is uncertainty on the determination of space
and time. So we can not determine space and time precisely
as we expect when we assume certain precision on energy.
in the condition (ΔE+E) ΔE < k we can always take k as large
as we want, even we can assume that k is infinity. So
in the uncertainty condition of space and time Δx Δt ≥ h2/k,
the 2nd member h2/k can be made very
small even equal to zero
Δt ≥ 0.
can take the limit case
Δx = 0 and Δt = 0
means the determinations of both space and time are precise.
In general, there is some uncertainty on space and time, but
by a proper method of super-science-religion (meditation) we
can have precision on both space and time together.
PRINCIPLE OF IGNORANCE
uncertainty on particle and wave in some sense is that when
we know the particle aspect in an event, we don't know its
wave aspect, and conversely. By saying “We don't know”, we
mean ignorance. It is the principle of
ignorance. We can say that the principle of uncertainty
is a manifestation of the principle of ignorance.
space and time of energy, if we determine the form (space)
of an event with certain precision, we can't in general
determine its time (duration) with precision, and
conversely. But if we practice meditation, we can perceive
both space and time with precision.
event in the universe contains energy in some form within in
space and time. Space and time of energy are like the two
faces of a coin. If a coin is, for example, made of nickel,
when the two faces disappear, the coin is transformed back
to nickel material (the coin won't subsists any more.) The
coin with 2 faces is a phenomenal form, and the nickel
material is its substance.
Universe (Energy with Space-Time) is the Greatest Phenomenal
Form whose substance is the Supreme Energy or Transcendental
Power. If we clear Space and Time from Energy by
meditation, Energy-Space-Time will transform itself back to
the Transcendental Power which is the Sacred Substance
the Beginning of the Universe, Ignorance created Space and
Time that covered the Transcendental Power, and the sacred
Transcendental Power with No-space-time becomes Energy with
space-time: The Universe appeared.
abolish Ignorance we can not use our minds and thoughts. It
requires ENLIGHTENMENT. The key to Enlightenment is
Meditation. Meditation is the method and enlightenment is
the purpose of Super-religion.
fundamental problem of super-science is the search of the
origin of the universe, and the solution to that problem is
super-religion. Super-science and super-religion combine
together in Super-science-religion.
Super-science studies phenomenal laws in the universe of
two material and spiritual worlds.
Super-religion reveals the transcendental substance of the
Universe, and shows the Right Way to Enlightenment through
out the Origin of the Universe.
super-science we discover the duality of the spiritual world
and the material world, then reach the origin of the
universe by the decomposition of particles to the limit of
super-religion we learn and practice the Right Way of
Meditation to Enlightenment to transcend beyond the
researches and discoveries in super-science help us know the
Natural Laws of energy and matter in both material and
spiritual worlds. Among the laws, there is the principle of
ignorance which means we can not with our minds and thoughts
Truly Understand the Transcendental Power beyond the
this point we make clear how we can understand the
Transcendental Power. There are 3 levels of understanding.
Understand the normal meaning of the words “Transcendental
Power” like any other words in the conversation or in a
But the words “Transcendental Power” indicate a secret
meaning beyond human perception. So Meditation is the
Right Method of Enlightening, that is “understanding” the
sacred object beyond normal knowledge.
The 3rd level of “understanding” is
Experiencing oneself the Transcendental Power.
Enlightening is revealing the Truth. Experiencing is itself
The Truth, that is living with the Truth.
Right Belief is a Sacred Understanding of the Transcendental
Power. A belief with no understanding is superstitious.
end this paper here and suggest the reader to continue
reading the papers on Meditation and Enlightenment already
written 10 years ago in Vietnamese which we did not have
time to translate into English. We hope to rewrite them in
English in the near future. Those papers are not in
copyright and are available to be translated by anybody
interested in the sacred subject.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHYSICS, 2nd Edition, VHS
* Reference books listed in the paper THEORETICAL
CONCEPTS OF UNIVERSALITY
Tiến Sĩ Toán học
Giáo sư Toán Đại học Loras
tại Iowa, Hoa Kỳ