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Trở về d_bb  ĐHKH

 

Trở về Trang Tác Giả

 

 

 

Giáo Sư Trần Cao Tần

ON THE FORMULA E=mc2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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MEDITATION

AND ENLIGHTENMENT

 

written in 2017

by Tan Tran, Ph. D.

This paper is in copyright. No reproduction of any part
may take place without the written permission of the author

 

 

 

          This is the third essay in super-science-religion, in which we clarify the concept of super-creation and introduce the laws of the universe in super-religion. The constituents of the universe are discovered.  Also we describe different basic methods of meditation. The technical words used may cause ambiguity in meaning to the reader. If so, the reader would be referred to other texts in Buddhist sermons.

 

 PART 1:

 

 LAW OF TRANSFORMATION BETWEEN

ENERGY AND ELECTRICITY

 

          We have seen the law of transformation between energy and matter

  E = mc2

that explains how energy is transformed to matter and conversely.

            Now we find out the relation between energy and electricity. The tool we use is the electron that is assumed to be an elementary particle: a fundamental building block of matter. In physics theories, the electron can not be decomposed into more primary constituents. The electron has the following intrinsic properties (Electron by A. Pais, Encyclopedia of Physics, Second Edition, VCH.)

            1/ The free electron is generally believed to be absolutely stable. A lower bound of the lifetime of the electron was established as 1021 years.

            2/ Mass: m=0.511 003 4 MeV/c2=9.109 534 x 10-28 g.

            3/ Charge: e=4.803 242 x 10-30 esu.

            4/ Spin: h/4π

            5/ Gyromagnetic ratio: 1.001 159 656 7 e/mc

            6/ Electric-dipole moment: Not observed. Its present experimental upper bound is 3 x 10-24e cm.

            Those are the measures in the system CGS. If we use the system MKS, we have mass and charge of the electron:

            Mass: m=9.109 534 x 10-31 Kg

            Charge: e=1.602 177 33 x 10-19 C

            If we take the ratio charge over mass of the electron, we have

  e/m = 1.602 177 33  x 10-19 C/9.109 534  x 10-31 Kg

                                                       = 1.758 791 x 1011 C/Kg

          Let's call that ratio e/m the elementary constant r (=1.758 791 x 1011 C/Kg)

                               e = mr = m x 1.758 791 1011

                At the scale of electron, one kilogram of matter is equivalent to 1.758 791x1011 coulombs.

            Since energy E=mc2, we have

                                    E = ec2/r

It is the law of transformation between energy
and electricity
.           

 

CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE

 

            So far we have worked in super-science with the data from the scientific researches and discoveries of scientists in mechanics and physics. We have seen many laws of the universe.

            On the stand point of super-science, we know that the universe is the One of Energy-Space-Time that is the greatest phenomenon whose substance is The Supreme Substance of The Supreme Power. The words Supreme Substance and Supreme Energy are synonyms of Supreme Power. In different circumstances we use either of those names for the same meaning.

            By Ignorance is created Space-Time that covers The Supreme Energy and makes it appear as the One of energy-space-time. So the universe of energy-space-time is the transformation of Supreme Energy by Ignorance. The Supreme Energy is beyond the universe, beyond the Mind and the Word of all sentient  beings.

            When using human Mind and Word to describe the Supreme Energy, one can “imagine” a mystery hidden behind the Ignorance, but can not really understand and see it as is.

            Meditation is The Way to transcend through the ignorance to reach to the Supreme Energy. When one can erase the ignorance, the Supreme Energy can be understood and experienced. It is Enlightenment.

            We are now at the stage of searching the Creation of the universe by the law of Ignorance.

            Using the human language of sciences and philosophy, we conceive that the Beginning of the universe is Ignorance which is beyond human knowledge. At this point we must clarify the concept of Creation. The concept of Creation we conceive here is the change from the Supreme Energy to this universe of energy-space-time. It is what we call the Super-Creation of the Universe from the True Emptiness. We emphasize that the concept of Super-Creation is different from the concept of Normal Creation that is making a new thing from other things which are already made. For example, people normally create (make) a car from the parts already made before, or the creation of a cake from flour, milk and sugar, or the creation of a baby from a man and a woman.

            The Supreme Energy is Beyond the universe, beyond every thing, beyond the Mind and the Word of sentient beings.

            After Energy-space-time appears, energy is transformed into mass and electricity by the two laws

E = mc2

 E = ec2/r

            Masses constitute the Gravitation and electricity constitutes the Karma. Gravitational Field and Karmic Field appear as Forces in the universe.

            Gravitation and Karma have a Unified System of Equations already examined in the two previous papers, Theoretical Concepts of Universality, and Super-science-religion.

           

CONSTITUENTS OF THE UNIVERSE

 

            In this paragraph, we describe the concepts and laws in Super-Science.

            At the beginning, the energy-space-time appeared first in the PRIMORDIAL FORM OF PARTICLE-NO-PARTICLE, AT THE STATE OF NO-REST-NO-MOTION. THE STATE OF NO-REST-NO-MOTION OF THE PARTICLE-NO-PARTICLE CONSTITUTES THE ABSOLUTE SPACE OF THE UNIVERSE. In the absolute space, there are genes of rest and motion which are the basis of Absolute and Relative. Motions appear due to the forces of gravitation and karma. The resultant of all the motions in the universe manifests the ABSOLUTE TIME.

            So in super-science we have Absolute and Relative Systems of reference and also Absolute and Relative Times as we have seen in the two previous papers.

            By the Principle of duality, the universe is composed of two worlds inseparably connected.

One is the Material World and the other is the Spiritual World. We say in the material world there is positive energy,  positive matter, and material electricity. In the spiritual world there is negative energy,  negative matter, and spiritual electricity. In both worlds, matter and spirit have Forms. We call Body a form in the material world, and Spirit a form in the spiritual world. A spirit can incarnate into a body if there are favorable karmic and gravitational conditions. When those conditions deteriorate and vanish, the spirit leaves the body. It is the Law of Birth and Death. Since after the death, the corpse has no more sensitivity, the spirit is charged of the Karma. The process of life sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action is mainly of the spirit, which is the karma of the body/spirit during life, and of the spirit after death. That explains that the karma continues after the death, and the 5-process sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action continues with the spirit which will incarnate in another body when the karmic conditions of a spirit and a body are appropriate. It is the law of Metempsychosis or the Cycle of Birth and Death: successive lives will continue for ever.

            The incarnation depends on the karma which is the fruit of the 5-process sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action in the past life. The present life is the fruit of the past 5-process. And the activities of the 5-process in the present life changes the karma, which in turn decides the next life. It is the law of cause and effect of life. Cause an Effect of Karma determine the successive lives by the alternation of birth and death.

            The activities in life are either GOOD or BAD. Good activities produce MERIT. Bad activities produce EVIL. Merit and Evil are the two aspects of Karma: GOOD KARMA and BAD KARMA. We have seen that our universe has the structure of 6 REALMS. The good karma and the bad karma of all living beings in this universe create that structure of six realms. And depending on the karma of an individual, that individual will be born in one of the six realms. When living in one realm, the activities in the 5-process of life determine the karma which in turn decides the future realm and the future life of the individual in that future realm. Clearly speaking, if an individual makes good karma in the present life, that individual will be born in a realm of higher merit with a happy life. If an individual makes bad karma in the present life, that individual will be born in a lower realm of less merit and more evil with a miserable life.

            So far we have studied the origin of the universe in super science. On the scientific stand point, we will find next the constituents of the universe after super-creation. Before defining the constituents of the universe, we need to review again the apparition of the primordial particles.

 

FUNDAMENTAL CONSTITUENTS.

 

Now we explore the fundamental constituents of the universe.

            The first particles of energy appear as particles are called the Vietas. A vieta has dual form: material form and spiritual form. It has the smallest dimension called laca. The shortest absolute time for a vieta to move a distance laca is called a satna. Laca is the smallest absolute distance, and satna the shortest absolute time in the universe. The smallest particle of energy vieta transforms to the smallest mass called a trana. Let's denote a vieta by E, and a trana by m, we have in principle

                                  E = mc2          

            And assume we have the smallest electricity e which we call electra, then by using the law of transformation between energy and electricity at electron scale, we have

                                 E = ec2/r

            At this point, we have scientifically defined

            vieta = smallest particle of energy

            trana = smallest mass

            electra = smallest electric charge

            laca = smallest distance

            satna = shortest time

            We can say with no ambiguity:

            Before the creation of vieta, there is no particles;

            Before the creation of trana, there is no mass;

            Before the creation of electra, there is no electricity;

            Before the creation of laca, there is no space;

            Before the creation of satna, there is no time;

            The word “Creation” here is the Super-Creation conceptualized before, which is the apparition of things from the True Emptiness. The particle-no-particle is the preexistence of the primordial particles cited above. The particle-no-particle has two aspects: the aspect of no-particle which is the no-existence, and the aspects of particle which is the existence. That means, the primordial particle is non-decomposable, because if we “decompose” it, we reach the state of existence-no-existence.

            The law of transformation between energy and mass

                                  E= mc2

is considered as a Fundamental Law in super-science.             

            In the context of scientific researches, we can also take the law of transformation between energy and electricity for a fundamental principle, because it is the best we can do even though the constant r comes from the assumption that the electron is not decomposable into smaller particles. The life of an electron is estimated 1021 years by scientists and is not eternal.

            We also find out the meaning of the constant c (speed of light and electromagnetic waves in vacuum). We define c as the speed of a vieta moving a distance laca in a time satna

                                  laca/satna = c

            It is a fundamental principle of super-science.

            So far we have three principles of super-science:

Principle 1: The speed laca/satna is the speed c of electromagnetic waves.

            By that principle, we see that the constant c is no more a secret because c is determined by the two primordial particles laca and satna.

            We need to understand that the concept of existence has a meaning only after the super-creation. Before the super-creation there was no existence.

            The electromagnetic waves and light are transformed from AURORA after the super-creation. Before the super-creation, there was no space-time, hence aurora has not appeared yet. By the super-creation, aurora is transformed to electromagnetic waves and light in the universe. That explains why people can see light but can not see aurora of the Super Power due to ignorance. When erasing ignorance, enlightening beings can experience aurora beyond this universe.

Principle 2: The transformation between energy and matter is determined by the relation between a vieta and a trana

                                  E = m c2

                If we write an energy E=kE, k is a real number, then E is transformed to a mass m

                                 E = kE = km c2= m c2

            So, m=km. That is an energy E=kE transforms to a mass m=km.

            Energy and mass appear only after the super-creation. Before the super-creation, there was no energy. The Supreme Energy is transformed to our universal energy after the super-creation. People can not see the Supreme Energy because of ignorance. Enlightening people will experience Supreme Energy. The concept of mass does not exist with Supreme Energy.

Principle 3: The transformation between energy and electricity is determined by the relation betweena vieta and and electra

                              E = e c2/r

            An energy E=kE, k being a real number, transforms to an electricity e=ke

                               E = e c2/r

            The electricity of our universe is transformed from the Supreme Energy, hence does not exist before the super-creation.

            By those three principles, we see that the electromagnetic waves including light come from the primordial existences of vieta, laca, and satna. We also see that masses and electricity come from the primordial existences of vieta, trana and electra. The primordial particle vieta plays an essential role in the foundation and the development of the universe.

            We will explore more the mysterious properties of vieta, the primordial particle of energy.

            – Energy appears in the form of vieta

            – There is a transition state of particle-no-particle from the Emptiness to vieta         

            – The state of particle-no-particle is the state energy-no-energy

            – There is no scientific method to discover a vieta; only meditation can view vieta

            – Vieta is the liaison between super-science and super-religion

 

LAW OF IMPERMANENCE

 

           The assumption about the electron leads to a query: Is the universe Permanent or Impermanent?

           The life of the electron as a “primordial” particle is estimated 1021 years, a billion of billion years longer than a human life, but the electron after 1021 years will change finally! People can never experiment such a long period of time. We can confirm with certainty that every thing in the universe, even the universe itself, is constantly changing. The change of any life consists of four factors: birth-aging-sickness-death. And the change of every thing in the universe consists of four factors: creation-duration-destruction-annihilation. It is the Law of Impermanence. Nothing is permanent, nothing is eternal in the universe. The concept of SOUL as Permanent in some religions is meaningless. Those religions worship a CREATOR, who does not exist by the principle of ignorance and by the super-creation.

            We as humans are living in this universe, and we all know that we were born, we are aging with time, we are sick time to time and can never avoid getting sick, and finally we will die because it is the law of impermanence in the universe. Where does that impermanence come from? Clearly impermanence is from ignorance. From ignorance the universe appeared, and it will disappear. The law of impermanence is a fundamental law of super-science-religion.

            People are afraid of the death. But rich or poor, successful or failed, happy or suffering, the life of each person will be terminated unavoidably. The universe itself will be destroyed and annihilated.

            What is eternal? What life has no death? What universe has no destruction?

            We will find an answer to those questions.

           

EXPLORATION OF LAWS IN SUPER-RELIGION

 

            We have developed many laws in super-science, which are more or less related to super-religion.

            Before describing Meditation and Enlightenment with details, we make an overview of the laws to have a general view of super-science-religion.

            The Law of Duality asserts that our universe consists of a material world and a spiritual world connected inseparably together.

            The Law of Birth and Death explains the incarnation of a spirit to a body that is the birth of a sentient being, and the separation of the spirit from the body that is the death of the sentient being.

            The Cycle of Birth and Death or Law of Metempsychosis is that after death, the spirit bound by Karma incarnates to a new body to make a new life in one of the Six Realms of the universe. The Six Realms is the structure of this universe, created by the collective karma of all the sentient beings born in this universe. 

            The process of life sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action comprises all spiritual and material activities of every sentient being. All those activities are due to the karma in the past, present and future lives. The past karma effects the present life, and the present karma will effect the next life. That explains more about the law of Cause and Effect in the Cycle of Birth and Death.

            The Universe is Dual. Beyond the Universe is the No-Duality. The law of Ignorance explains the change of the Non-Dual Supreme Power to the Duality of Energy-Space-Time and Energy-Spirit-Heart.  

            The Energy-space-time is the material world in the view of Super-Science.

            The Energy-Spirit-Heart is the spiritual world in the view of Super-Religion.

            The One of Energy-space-Time-Spirit-Heart is the synthesis of Super-science-Religion.

            That metaphysics is an analysis of the Super-Creation of the universe.

            If it is obscure to some readers, we clarify it with more conceptions. Beyond the universe is Emptiness. Super-Creation is the apparition of Existence from Emptiness. By the law of ignorance, the whole universe appears as the one of a material world of energy-space-time and a spiritual world of energy-spirit-heart. The Supreme Power is No-material and No-spiritual, and by ignorance it appears as material and spiritual. The universe is a Great-Phenomenon of which the substance is the transformation of the Supreme Substance. The Supreme-Substance and the Supreme Power are the One of No-Duality. The law of Ignorance asserts that THERE IS NO CREATOR OF THE UNIVERSE. The belief that a GOD creates the universe is only a Superstition. The Universe comes from Ignorance. The origin of the universe is Ignorance which changes a Great Mystery to the apparition of the universe. The Great Mystery is the Supreme-Substance which has NO PHENOMENON, NO SPACE-TIME, NO SPIRIT-HEART. By Ignorance, the Supreme-Substance transforms to this universe with space-time, and to karma with spirit-heart. So before the apparition of the universe with space-time and spirit-heart, there was No gravitation and No karma. What we know as energy, mass, electricity, space, time, gravitation, karma, sensitivity, emotion, mind, word, action appear only after the super-creation by Ignorance.

            Human beings and all sentient beings come from Ignorance, and they live in the envelop of Ignorance. We live in a dream but we don't know the dream.

            We also have seen other laws in the super-science world, which we don't describe again here.

            But there are laws in super-religion we have to explore to understand meditation and enlightenment.

 

LAW OF FIVE AGGREGATES.

 

            The bodies of sentient beings and all other things in the universe constitute the FORM. The SENSITIVITY of a sentient being help it FEEL its own presence distinct from other things. The own presence is the EGO, which we have assigned as the total of the expression εμq2 (=1) when studying the rule of coefficients.

            The interactions of a body/spirit with the environment create the five sense organs on the body/spirit: the eyes to see, the ears to hear, the nose to smell, the tongue to taste, the skin to feel, and the brain to think. By those five organs, the body/spirit interacts with the outside world. The Interactions of one individual with the environment consists of five cumulative steps: corporeal (Form), senses, perception, mental formation, consciousness. It is the Law of Five Aggregates. Let's take an illustration to understand that process.

            Consider the case of the eyes seeing a thing. We call the eyes the subject, the thing the object, and the seeing consciousness.

            In the process of five aggregates, first the eyes SEE the FORM of the object. From that form comes the SENSE of seeing. From that sense comes the PERCEPTION on the object. That Perception creates next the MENTAL FORMATION on the object. Then the mental formation mixes with all the aggregates of the six subjects (eyes, ears, nose …) stored in the past karma and in the present karma to form the COMPLETE CONSCIOUSNESS OF SIGHT on the object. So the process of Sight Consciousness consists of FIVE STEPS called the FIVE AGGREGATES or FIVE CUMULATIVE STEPS.

            At this point, we should not be confused the Law of Five Aggregates with the Law of Five Activities.

            The Law of Five Life Activities consists of Sensitivity-Emotion-Mind-Word-Action manifesting all the activities of a sentient being.

            The Law of Five Aggregates consists of five factors: Form-Sense-Perception-Mental Formation-Consciousness manifesting the five mental steps of interactions of a body/spirit with the environment. So what we observe is the presence of THREE ELEMENTS: SUBJECT – CONSCIOUS-NESS – OBJECT. The consciousness is the intermediate relation between the subject and the object. Let's call subject, consciousness, object the three elements of the process of interaction of one organ like eyes, ears, nose… with the environment. Since we have Six Organs, there are 18 elements with six categories of perception of the six organs. In our life, every moment we live with our 18 elements.

            With the Law of Five Aggregates we can envisage the Five Impurities.

 

THE FIVE IMPURITIES.

 

            We know that the INSTINCTS OF LIFE are the BIRTH, the NOURISHMENT, the REPRODUCTION, the DEATH. The birth and death are already explained in the Law of Birth and Death. The Nourishment and the Reproduction are the obligations of life. By the evolution of life, the sentient beings multiply themselves by reproduction. And due to the need of living, they struggle for subsistence and fight together for foods and sexuality. Sentient beings live on the death of other beings.

            Primarily the five aggregates WERE GENUINE and PURE. But by fighting and killing one another, the sentient beings become more and more greedy, angry, delirious, which make the five aggregates IMPURE. It is what we call the FIVE IMPURE AGGREGATES, which are the actual impure mental cumulative of the humane population on the earth today. The present aggregates of all sentient beings in the six realms of the universe are impure.

            The impure aggregates form the foundation of the six realms. Good Karma and Bad Karma are the fruits of the impure aggregates. The structure of the six realms is based on the foundation of karma. Before, in super-science, we conceived the structure of the six realms based on different accelerations and forces in the material-like space and in the spiritual-like space. Here, on the stand point of super-religion, we conceive that the apparition of the six realms in the universe is the consequence of the effects of karma. To understand that verity, just look at the formation of the society in the world. The structure of the society is based on religion, culture, economy, finance, laws etc ... all of which come from the collective karma and the individual karma of the population.

            From the impure aggregates, we further explore more laws of super-religion.

 

LAW OF NO-FORM.

 

            The first aggregate is the cumulative FORM. Every form, material or spiritual, is composed of matter in five states: solid, liquid, gas, energy, space. The composition of the five states is Impermanent because they change constantly and make the form evolute in the process of four factors: creation, duration, destruction, annihilation. For sentient beings, the four factors are: birth, aging, sickness, death.  It is the LAW OF IMPERMANENCE we have discovered before. By that law we affirm that FORM IS IMPERMANENT. Because form is impermanent, we conclude there is no fixed form, no constant form, and forcibly there is NO-FORM. It is the LAW OF NO-FORM. Every form always changes. Our body and our spirit always change. The LAW OF NO-FORM is a manifestation of the LAW OF IMPERMANENCE. That law helps us explain how we perform meditation to escape the restriction of form to transcend beyond the universe. Meditation is the RIGHT METHOD to erase ignorance and go beyond the universe to attain enlightenment.       

 

LAW OF NO-EGO.

 

            The second aggregate is the cumulative SENSE. Scientifically, we have seen that SENSITIVITY is from the electric density on the skin (see THEORETICAL CONCEPTS OF UNIVERSALITY.) And we have also shown that the karma of a sentient being is charged by the spirit because after the death the dead corpse does not have anymore sensitivity. The five process of life creates the karma which determines the reincarnation of the spirit to a new body to make a new living being in one of the six realms of the universe. The sensitivity is the cement of attachment of the spirit and the body in the body/spirit. An individual recognizes the body and the spirit as as a whole existence that has sensitivity. That whole existence senses the distinction between the individual and the environment: it is the feeling of EGO. Everybody sees the Ego as the most important existence because the Ego is the form that has the sensitivity, and other corporeal and mental activities. But the feeling changes constantly and hence the Ego also changes constantly. So there is no eternal ego because Ego is composed of different changing cumulative. That is the ego is impermanent. Because the ego is impermanent, we have the LAW OF NO-EGO. Each of us must reveal that we have no unchanged ego; our existence is only a virtual ego which appears here by ignorance. The universe and every thing come from the Supreme Power by ignorance. Before the universe appears, there was no ego, during life there is no eternal ego, and when completely enlightening the ego will disappear in the Supreme Power.  Knowing intelligently the law of no-ego will help us understand meditation and enlightenment.

 

LAW OF NO-SUBSTANCE.

 

            The third aggregate is the cumulative PERCEPTION. With the perception of the form and the sense we recognize the substance of an object. For example, we see a chair different from a table, a bird different from a human. It is the difference by substance. The perception of substance comes to our mind after the development of the form and the sense. In a general analysis, we can assimilate the third aggregate of perception with the mind in the five steps process of life. The substances are different from one species to another species. For example, a wood table for human is a house and food for termites. The same thing has two different substances for two species. What we recognize as “table substance” is “house and food substance” for termites. There is no unique substance of one thing for all species. Clearly, things have NO SUBSTANCE, because the concept of perception is completely relative to different species and individuals.  It is the LAW OF NO-SUBSTANCE. That law will help us learn and practice meditation.     

           

LAW OF METEMPSYCHOSIS.

 

            The forth aggregate is the cumulative MENTAL FORMATION, which comes after the FORM, the SENSE, and the PERCEPTION. The six organs eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, and brain have all the five aggregates working before and now. The mental formation relates to all of those aggregates and combines with them to make a configuration of new mental formation for creating karmic seeds which will be stored in the subconsciousness. Those karmic seeds will contribute to the modification of karma which in turn determine the future karmic conditions for the next incarnation. In super-religion language, the mental formation will direct the spirit on the route to find an appropriate body and incarnate into it when the karmic conditions of the spirit and the new body are appropriate. We call it the LAW OF METEMPSYCHOSIS. It is what is called BIRTH-DEATH-CYCLE or LAW OF SUCCESSIVE LIVES. In the mental formation, the mental activities create good karma or bad karma. Good karma produces MERIT and Bad karma produces EVIL. The proportion of merits and evils makes a modification of karma. The resulting karma will be judged to the level of one of the six realms. And the next life will be in the corresponding realm of conforming karma: The result of the judgment will be a sentence to the realm of gods, of humans, of attula, of animals, of ghosts, or of hells.

 

LAW OF BIRTH AND DEATH.

 

            The fifth aggregate is the cumulative CONSCIOUSNESS. After the process of form, sense, perception, the subconsciousness of the mental formation inter-relates to all the five aggregates and all the karmic seeds of the past and of the present to form the consciousness on the observed thing. That consciousness changes very rapidly. A thinking idea appears and quickly disappears for a new idea comes up. Actually, the consciousness determines all of our activities in the five steps process of life sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action. The continual change of successive concepts effects the activities in life. The activities effect the karma which creates the karmic seeds. The karmic seeds decide our life and also our death. It is what we call the LAW OF BIRTH AND DEATH. The consciousness is the power of the spirit and not of the body. The spirit uses its power to guide the activities of the sentient being – body/spirit. We have seen the law of birth and death many times in the essays. Here, we explain it again by the aggregate of consciousness because it helps understand more precisely super-religion.

 

COLLECTIVE KARMA AND INDIVIDUAL KARMA.

 

            We have discussed the five aggregates, the five impure aggregates, and the five fundamental laws of super-religion. In the formation of the five aggregates, each of them effects the vital activities of the five-process of life. The aggregates effect the body, the sensitivity, the emotion, the mind, the word and the action in life. The aggregates and the vital activities are recorded in the karma like the work, the scholar activities and the working experience are recorded in the resume of a person.  The resume of a person is like the history of country in which all the activities of the population are written and recorded. We have two aspects of history: the collective history and the individual history.

            Similarly, karma has two different aspects: collective karma and individual karma.

            Let's take an example to understand. We have seen in the description of the law of no-substance that a wood table has the “substance of table” for the human species but it has the “substance of house and food” for the species of termites. In that example, we can say “substance of table” is the collective substance of the human species, and “house and food” is the collective substance for the species of termites. For karma, we can say the same: the human species has the collective human karma; the termites have the collective termites' karma. But among the human beings with the same human karma, each individual has a distinct life with a distinct body/spirit, that is, each individual has a distinct individual karma. Similarly, in the species of termites with the collective termites' karma, each termite has a distinct individual karma. All the gods have the same collective god karma, and each god has a distinct god karma. All the animals have the same collective animal karma, and each animal has a distinct individual animal karma. All the ghosts have the same collective ghost karma, and each god has a distinct individual ghost karma. All the persons in hell have the same collective hell karma, and each of them has a distinct individual hell karma.

 

CAUSES OF KARMA.

 

            The main subject of the vital activities is the body/spirit (form.) The body/spirit produces the feeling of distinction of the ego from the environment. The mental concept of ego is formed by the five aggregates, essentially by the sensitivity of the body/spirit. Then the ego activates the five steps process of life sensitivity-emotion-mind-word-action. The aggregates and the five steps of life activities work together to produce karma. In that ensemble of vital activities and aggregates, we see first the form, then sensitivity, motion, mind, word and action. Six those factors create karma in different ways.

            The form plays the essential role in the life of a sentient being. From the form, the sensitivity produces the ego. The ego then has emotion. From emotion comes mind which expresses word then action. We see that action is the last step in the process of life. But each of the six steps produces karma and the last one is the most influential. The three first steps – form, sensitivity, emotion – that produce ego – are in oriental philosophy not essential in creating karmic seeds. The three steps – mind, word, action – are the main causes of karma. In life activities, what we think, what we say, what we do all contribute to the creation of karma. The good or bad thoughts, the good or bad words, the good or bad actions have consequences that cause the karma. From those things the actions are the most important generator of the karmic relations.

           

A DESCRIPTION OF SUCCESSIVE LIVES.

 

            For a life, we have seen the factors of vital activities: Form, Sensitivity, Emotion, Mind, Word, Action that create the karma for the next life.

            We see that all of our activities in the present life effect our karma and produces karmic seeds, which determine our next life. The next life will be in one of the six realms in the structure of the universe.

            We remind here the six realms built up on the foundation of Merit and Evil.

            1/ Realm of God or Paradise

            2/ Human Realm

            3/ Attula Realm (oriental concept) or Angel Realm (occidental concept)

            4/ Animal Realm

            5/ Ghost Realm

            6/ Hell Realm

  The realms 1-2-3 belong to the spiritual-like space-time.

  The realms 4-5-6 belong to the material -like space-time.

In super-religion, we have seen above the concepts and laws:

    *          Law of Impermanence

    *          Five activities of life: sensitivity, emotion, mind, word, action

    *          Three causes of ego: form, sensitivity, emotion

    *          Three causes of karma: mind, word, action   

    *          Five aggregates of interactions: form, senses, perception, mental formation, consciousness

    *          Two instincts of life: nourishment, reproduction

    *          Three causes of impurity: greed, anger, delirium

    *          Five impure aggregates

    *          Law of no-form

    *          Law of no-ego

    *          Law of no-substance

    *          Law of successive lives (metempsychosis)

    *          Law of birth and death

 

     Those laws and concepts will be used to describe Meditation and Enlightenment.    

 

 

 Đọc:

   MEDITATION ENLIGHTENMENT - PHẦN 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

GS Trần Cao Tần
Tiến Sĩ Toán học

Giáo sư Toán Đại học Loras tại Iowa, Hoa Kỳ

 

 

  

 

 

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